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Akademische Arbeit, 2018
8 Seiten, Note: A
The Social Impact of the Industrial Revolution
Contribution of the First Industrial Revolution to the Rise of Capitalism
Capitalism and the Development of Communist Theory
Geographic Factors to the Rise of Early Societies in Mesopotamia
The Process of Diffusion between Early Human Societies-Potatoes
Two Environmental Factors for the US Expansion
Martin Luther Social Changes
Eleanor Roosevelt Social Changes
The Rise of Imperialism in Africa
Causes, Goals and Strategies of the American Revolution
Causes, Goals and Strategies of the Orange Revolution in Ukraine
Notably, the Industrial Revolution had diverse effects on urban and family lives, social classes and living standards. In this regard, the two principal impacts of the First Industrial Revolution include the rise of factories as well as the emergence of the Bourgeoisie. The advancement and emergence of new technologies and machinery drastically changed the division of labor, with the traditional craftsmen turning into factories to work as professionals (Desai & Potter, 2013). With the increased interest among craftsmen to work as machine operators, diverse industries cropped up, for instance the cotton textile industry, iron industry and the steam engine, facilitating the industrial factory that became the chief means of labor in the new machines. The bourgeoisie was a new group that was added by the industrial capitalism to the middle class, a class that had existed since the emergence of cities during the Middle Ages (Desai & Potter, 2013). In this sense, this term (bourgeoisie) came to include people who were involved in commerce, banking, and industry, encompassing professionals like lawyers, doctors, and even teachers as wealthy people purchased land. The lower end of the economic scale saw the shopkeepers and the craftsman.
Therefore, the aforementioned impacts are justifiable because prior to the Industrial Revolution era, most communities depended on craftsmen and farming only, before the advent of new technologies that accelerated the production of goods. As a result, people began creating interests in professional fields so as to increase their production and reduce time consuming, a phenomenon that resulted in the creation of a new class of individuals; eased by the division of labor.
Scholars have affirmed that as the members of the industrial middle class were striving to reduce the barriers between the landed elites and themselves, they were also looking for ways to distance themselves from the lower (laboring) classes. Eventually, the factory workers formed an industrial proletariat although; in the first half of the 19th century they constituted a small number in the working class. Therefore, it remained evident that due to the division and change of the labor settings, the society required a bourgeoisie and a lower class for its economic development.
Carl Marx claimed that capitalism is an unavoidable phase for the transition to communism. Marx wrote about the rise of the working class, a class that substantially existed only in capitalist societies. Moreover, it is noted that unrestricted capitalism facilitated the rise of the distinctions between the rich and the poor, differences that have evidently existed in the society over the years. Considering the Industrial Revolution and capitalism as inevitably tied together, it can be observed that communism was actually the outcome of this trend (Desai & Potter, 2013). The poor working conditions that were present in the early Industrial Revolution, and even after, can be observed to be the main aspects that made communism logical. In other words, Marx believed that this system of exploitations, where the workers were sufficiently angered by the poor living conditions, encouraged them struggle to rise against the bourgeoisie, inciting a revolution to later attain the communist utopia goal.
Geography and environment have played significant roles in the development of early societies in diverse regions including Mesopotamia. Substantially, the northern Mesopotamia constitutes hills and plains, not to mention that the land is quite fertile because of the seasonal rains evident, facilitated by the rivers and streams from the mountains (Wossink, 2009). Therefore, agriculture became one of the key activities in this region, with early settlers engaging in agricultural activities for their survival. The development of agriculture expanded drastically during the Atlanticum, and this period was followed by a climate of lower temperatures. Studies demonstrate that one of the rather cold and dry spells coincided with the expansion of cities in Mesopotamia in conjunction with the foundation of the first Egyptian dynasty (Wossink, 2009).
According to historians, agriculture was practiced across the Americans from the North American eastern woodlands to the Amazon basin tropical forests. Later, the American Indians cultivated more than one-hundred crops such as squash, peppers, tomatoes, quinoa and even amaranth (Pidwirny, 2014). Some crops, especially potatoes, maize, and manioc became vital sources of food to the densely populated regions. There was a wide variety of potatoes that was cultivated in several regions of America, and observers state that these varieties remained to be the staple food in the highland South America. In other regions including Europe, diet expanded to include potatoes.
Remarkably, potato was first encountered by the Spanish conquistadors after arriving in Peru (1532) as they looked for gold, not to mention that they observed Inca miners eating chunu. Gradually, the Spaniards began to use potatoes as basic rations, especially after realizing that it had much significance compared to their normal activity concerning gold and silver (Pidwirny, 2014).From Spain, this crop gradually spread to Italy and other European nations in the late 1500s, and by the next century, it had entered Italy, Spain, Holland, Belgium, England, Austria, Germany, Portugal, Switzerland, Ireland and France, diffusing distinct cultures that were evident in these nations (Pidwirny, 2014). Such diffusion was justified because these were war periods that caused conflicts among communities, affecting agriculture and; hence, causing migration which has a huge correlation with cultural exchange.
Although there are many environmental factors that played significant roles in the US development and expansion, scholars and historians have affirmed that the potato famine in Ireland in conjunction with the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s were the main. The two events played a role in shaping the nation in that as the Irish potato famine devastated Ireland, it ended up invigorating Irish migration to the United States of America. As a consequence, this led to high contribution of the workforce together with the US expansion as the new immigrants moved out of the slums to find new lands of their own. Again, the 1930s drought period that was coupled with irregular rains and erosion forced farmers and landowners in the Great Plains to migrate, with the dust storms destroying any hope of land maintenance (Pidwirny, 2014). A great number of people were forced out of their land due to extreme weather, replacement of the drought-resistant prairie grass and withering of wheat. Therefore, since wheat and cotton prices fell due to overproduction, and that the drought and dust storms had substantially damaged crops, aggravating economic hardship, the farmers were justified to migrate for better living standards.
Martin Luther played a vital role during the Reformation era; a religious revolution that occurred in the sixteenth century in the Western church. Remarkably, the Reformation became the foundation of the Protestantism as it had influential political, social and economic impacts. It was a time when the church was involved in the Western Europe political life, leading to intrigues as well as political manipulations as the increasing power of the church led to bankruptcy and other social vices like corruption (Tischler, 2010). Therefore, Luther attacked the pervasion of the doctrine of the church of grace and redemption, deploring the entanglement of the free gift of grace in a complex framework of good deeds and indulgences. Here, Luther confronted the indulgence system, claiming that the pope did not have the power over purgatory and proceeded to insist that the merits of the saints’ philosophy did not have the basis in the gospel. Consequently, this formed the basis for a fight towards ethical as well as theological church reform. Again, Luther’s fight for ethics extended to the fight against corruption, which did not only occur in the church but also in the governmental institutions, enlightening people all over Europe and other parts of the world of the effects of this vice (Tischler, 2010).
Eleanor Roosevelt has been noted to be an important figure in many of the most renowned social reform movements of the 20th century such as the New Deal, Women’s Movement, Progressive Movement and struggle for racial justice (Johnson, 2010). Notably, Eleanor Roosevelt embraced a civil rights agenda that advocated segregation alongside championing equal opportunity. In this sense, she gave quality education her first priority among the public, which encompassed all the races, especially the African Americans. Therefore, she managed to change the education system in America as prior to her struggle; the education system was outright biased (Johnson, 2010). Again, she sufficiently fought against women discrimination in the government positions, a phenomenon that justified the election of women to the government alongside voicing out their opinions and decisions. Consequently, she managed to pressure for societal changes that resulted to cropping up of adequate respect towards the female gender.
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