Für neue Autoren:
kostenlos, einfach und schnell
Für bereits registrierte Autoren
14 Seiten, Note: 9.2/10
The title page of the research proposal shall indicate the following: · Candidate‟s name : Yap Boon Hup
- Student ID number
- Programme : DBA
- Title of Research : The Influencing Factors of Service Quality, Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty on Multi- Level Marketing: A Study on Stem Cell Company in Malaysia.
This research is aimed to explore another dimension of quality service known as Service Quality (SERVQUAL) which had a significant impact on the customer loyalty of StemTech company in Malaysia in particular, and also the world of customer satisfaction in general. Customer loyalty and customer satisfaction are two integral components that a company must know and understand in ensuring the success of their business. Essentially, a company must know the needs of their customers and satisfy them so that they can loyal to the company. A good service quality will lead to the customer satisfaction and ultimately to the customer loyalty.
Service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty are the core of the relationship between marketing theory and practice. To raise awareness about the vital connection of our marketing, I have developed a framework for a comprehensive and flexible to theory, analysis of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty, while the use of SERVQUAL Model by Berry, Zeithaml and Parasuraman (1990) as the premise of this study.
This study explored a new demographic field with SERVQUAL questionnaire by surveying StemTech consumers in East and West Malaysia. This study compared customers‟ perception level with their expectations and provides recommendations to improve service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty. The mediating role of customer satisfaction is further supported by determining the direct / indirect effects of service quality on loyalty.
This research assess about how precisely customer satisfaction for being the principal instrument to guarantee the living and survival of StemEnhance business. It is important to offer something that is needed by the consumer by giving quality products or services that do meet customer requires. Knowing their importance, an organization like StemEnhance, a Multi Level Marketing company needs to provide throughout its organizational structure so that they can meet the requirements of their customers to be able to always guarantee the availability, continuity and also success in the business (Oladejo, 2010). In accordance with Johnson and Fornell (1991), the focus on customer satisfaction is critical to gain the confidence of consumers for products and services provided. Among the secrets of success of any business is customer care or satisfaction. It attributes a chief upshot of marketing request and operations, maintaining immutable and also steady human relationships between providers and buyers; it covers an easy and also positive connection with customer loyalty and also subsequently with customer profitability (Sleilati, 2011).
StemEnhanceTM is apparently the brainchild connected with Christian Drapeau along with Gitte Ohydrates. Jensen. Drapeau is director connected with Research and Development intended for Desert Lake Technologies, connected with Klamath Falls, Oregon. Desert Lake's Internet site says that will before that will, he expend five many years as director for research and development for Cell Tech International, a multilevel corporation whose primary products are based on blue-green algae (Khan, 2000).
Throughout February 2002, Medical Hypothesis published a report in that Jensen as well as Drapeau speculated that adult stem cells from bone marrow might be capable of migrating in order to various cells where they might produce regeneration as well as repair. They furthermore urged others to consider substances that may trigger these kinds of mobilization (Jensen and Drapeau, 2002). A few months later they requested a patent in the United States for a method for "enhancing stem cell trafficking." This patent report states they had given blue-green algae preparations and diagnosed increased going around stem cell levels within humans as well as laboratory animals. The patent seemed to be awarded in November 2004. StemTech HealthSciences, registered its domain in September 2005 in United States and began soliciting distributors over the Internet soon afterward (Khan, 2000).
With StemEnhance products, human body‟s natural daily renewal system is enhanced with adult stem cells that are released from the bone marrow to circulate in the blood and migrate into tissues and organs, where they proliferate for the maintenance of optimal health (Stemtech Link, 2012). As the age, the number and quality of stem cells that circulate in human body gradually decrease, leaving the body more susceptible to injury and other age-related health challenges. Just as antioxidants are important to protect the cells from “free radical” damage, stem cell enhancers are equally important to support our stem cells in maintaining proper organ and tissue functioning in our body. StemEnhance supports the release of adult stem cells from bone marrow into circulation (refer to Appendix 1). StemTech HealthSciences itself was founded in 2005, the StemTech Story actually began several decades before, in the late 1970‟s until the year of 2013 is shown in the Appendix page. Actually, the company of StemEnhance registered under its company name StemTech in Malaysia in the year of 2007.
Besides selling the nutritional products, StemTech has been constantly providing high quality service with their cutting-edge facilities other than placing commercial interest ahead for their customers . After obtaining the coveted Ministry of Health License to operate Private Blood Bank in Malaysia in 2008, they have embarked on their next phase of expansion at StemTech International. It is the first stem cell bank in Malaysia to install and deploy the automated cord blood processing technology that delivers a constantly higher stem cell recovery with low risk of contamination (StemTech-international.com, 2008).
Multi level marketing is the term used to illustrate the sort of marketing system an organization uses to offer and disperse its items. It is not a fraudulent business model or a scam as numerous individuals think. Stock is sold specifically to the buyer by members of the organization. These members are not representatives of the organization however are free operators who acquire a requisition on their distinct offers of items. They additionally appropriate a requisition on the offers of the offshoots whom they have enrolled to the Multi Level Marketing business opportunity or also called their downline. Downline is a term used in multilevel marketing (MLM) to describe the sales representatives that another sales rep has recruited to the direct selling company. In an MLM, the recruiting sales rep receives compensation based on her downline as well as own sales (Brunelli, 2013).
As per Sreekumar (2007), the multi-level marketing and advertising maybe recovery tool which can influence society through occupation generation, mobilizing long term funds in addition to improving quality of life of people. Indeed, StemTech as one of the multi level marketing companies globally and locally has been creating network marketing facility which is necessary to make certain the completeness of a human body by means of providing the stem cells from the bone marrow and increases the number of circulating stem cells by 25-30%, which is bound to assist the body in maintaining optimal health. Probably the most popular what to sell inside the network marketing industry has become nutritional health supplements (Open Press, 2009). It is really a market with arranged grandness associated with any country because it contributes towards nutritional supplement market along with to help to produce lifelong benefits to patients particularly suffering from blood disorders (Hyun, 2013).
In the micro-level, StemTech products providing unmatched level of wellness, both inside and outside of human body which are fair, safe and stable for the benefit of the consumers (StemTech, 2012). The Direct Selling Association of Malaysia (DSAM) is a national trade association aimed at promoting the direct selling industry as well as act as the de facto voice of the industry (DSAM, 2012). Therefore, StemTech products have provided individuals with more energy, better rest and heightened mental clarity. In addition to that, some have also been able to make some extra income. The role of StemTech is undergoing a phenomenal change today as is evident by the assistance and words of mouth. Stemtech is unique in the sense that it is involved cutting-edge technology i.e. Stem cell technology. In pertaining to this, DSAM plays a major role in working closely with Ministry of Health, Ministry of Domestic and International Trade and Ministry of Finance in Malaysia by contributing to the industry's professional image to achieve their common aspirations (DSAM, 2013). Network marketing has over the past 50 years proven itself to be a successful distribution model and home-based business opportunity is based on grassroots-level networking where products are sold directly from an individual to end-users without going through a traditional retail medium (Leadallinv, 2013).
Using the 2012 Nobel Prize likely to stem cell researchers along with major mass media outlets contacting 2013 "the Year of the Stem Cell", people are more conscious that stem cell technology is here. The President and CEO of Stemtech, Mr Carter claims that Stemtech can handle a new powerful system regarding self-sufficient vendors around the world, meeting conference globally in addition to offering chance for internet marketers essentially everywhere and also StemTech features available areas in more than twenty nations around the world upon 6 continents in addition to develop at a quick speed (Newswire.com, 2013). According to Stemtech news reports, stem cells nutrition industry has seen double digit growth since 2010 (DSN Global, 2013).
According to Lee et al (2012), direct selling firms or even direct retailing firms inside Malaysia is really a diversified company together with sizeable product or service types. These direct marketing firms are getting to be a large supply channel within the country‟s complete retailing system. In accordance with Planet Federation connected with Direct Offering (WFDSA) Data posted inside 2011, direct selling marketing company inside Malaysia features retail store income regarding RM6. 8 billion dollars (approximately 0. 89% connected with gross domestic product inside Malaysia) and possesses a people around 4. 30 trillion direct sales distributors or even sales representatives inside Malaysia (more in comparison with 10% connected with Malaysian complete population) this season. This specific shows that the particular direct marketing company has a bright future.
To meet the varying requests of different individuals, the network marketing or MLM players require a vast foray of products and services in their bouquet. Not simply this, almost all suppliers offer the freedom to customers to opt for the most suitable product for themselves through combining attributes of a numbers of products and services together. Besides, organizations that utilizing multi-level marketing concept can use the device to help fortify the web interface between service quality and productivity together with figure out optimal distribution joined with scarce resources. Organizations could improve customized services and products that are all the more nearly adjusted with individual customer's principle utility works, along these lines allowing the organization to get more criticalness from degrees of customers, leading to higher all round customer earning (Zeithaml et al, 2001).
Customers tend to be individuals who visit our spot for a take wish. It is our employment to deal with the particular taking profit to customers along with ourselves. Customer satisfaction is of the customers in which his or her expectations happen to be attained as well as exceeded expectations. Contended customers will buy more and be more prone to do business with the seller (Gerson, 1993). Customers should be able to satisfy fully with the choices they make in the event that a person does something the correct way along with during the time as well as the suitable place with self-confidence - by way of self-efficacy (MindTools, 2013).
The particular concentration of the study is related to ascertain average gap score (between customer's perceptions along with expectations) in multi-level marketing for every service attribute and to assess its business service quality coupled with all the 5 SERVQUAL dimensions comprising of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and tangible. The definitions and background theories on service quality are based on SERVQUAL Model including
customers‟ perceptions, customers‟ expectations, perceived service quality, customer satisfaction, and customer loyalty. Based on this literature review, a theoretical framework with their gaps are developed and presented derived from SERVQUAL Model in Chapter 2.
Chapter 3 reviews the methodology by using the qualitative and quantitative approach or mixed method which is designed to solicit feedback of customer satisfaction so as to justify the research paradigms and research approach for the study and particular SERVQUAL conceptual model serves as a succinct structure for realizing, calculating along with strengthening service quality (Parasuraman et. al. 1988). SERVQUAL provides two components going without running shoes: Customer Expectations and Customer Perceptions. Customer Expectations tend to be those that the customer expects since “should be” and “can be” form of services. Service offered differs with suppliers along with how much alternative in which customers can put up with is referred to as Tolerance. The particular gap between what on earth is viewed as adequate service along with sought after service is referred to as Zone of Tolerance. The harder critical the particular SERVQUAL measurement, the larger could be the desired service level along with narrower the particular zone of tolerance (Naik et al, 2010).
As mentioned above, customer loyalty in StemTech company is challenging and is necessary to the StemTech provider to always be successful within a lengthy circuit of time. This research aims to determine the effect of customer satisfaction on loyalty. Figure 1 shows the objective of this research and to address this objective as the main question is developed. To make this question is controllable it is divided into four sub questions and the sum of the sub questions will give answer to the main question and reach the objective.
Determine customer satisfaction serve as a mediating factor between perceived service quality and customer loyalty
Main research questions
Does customer satisfaction serve as a mediating factor between perceived service quality and customer loyalty?
Sub research questions
1) Is there a significant difference between customers‟ expectations and their perceptions concerning
2) How are customers‟ expectations related to their perceptions concerning StemTech customer‟s service
3) How are customers‟ perceptions related to their assessment of StemTech customer‟s service quality?
4) What is the relationship between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction of StemTech?
Figure 1 : Research Problem
This section provides an overview of the research methods used to collect and analyze the data as obtainable in Chapter 3. The research methodology is often a means by which information and data needed to promote the progress of this thesis writing is achieved. The particular means might be a proper along with systematic someone to collect, review, distribute in addition utilize information when considering improving the particular satisfaction of the case study firm.
As the research hypotheses is mainly stress on „what‟ and „how‟, thus the analytical research applied. It aims to provide an accurate picture of the market environment (Aeker and Day, 1990). This is a simple case study, the sample size aim to be collected from 200 respondents (StemTech consumers). The method to be used in this research is mostly quantitative method by using the Partial Least Squares in Structural Equations Modeling Approach. Most of the data is mainly from on-line surveys and questionnaire. For this purpose, primary data collection methods will be used to collect data for this research.
The questionnaire is designed to solicit feedback of customer satisfaction. It is essential to use the procedure which describes the process of monitoring and measuring customer satisfaction to determine desirable changes for the services quality of StemTech in order to achieve the customer loyalty.
The outline of this dissertation is presented in Figure 2 by our own illustration. Chapter 1 relates the introduction and research problem of this dissertation. Chapter 2 is mainly about the literature review. Research Methodology is in chapter 3. Next is chapter 4 which reports about the findings of data analysis. Last chapter of this dissertation is chapter 5 which is pertaining to the conclusion and recommendations.
Introduction and Chapter 2
Research Problem Literature Review
Conclusion and Recommendations
Chapter 4 Data analysis
Figure 2 : Dissertation Outline
There are five chapters in this dissertation. Chapter 1 provides an introduction and brief background to the research including a statement on the research problem, research questions and hypotheses. The chapter also provides justifications of the research, explains thesis outline, summarizes of methodology used and the limitations of the research.
Chapter 2 encompasses the literature review which explores about the theories of service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty. Good service quality will give a strong impact on customer satisfaction and ultimately on customer loyalty.
Chapter 3 reviews the literature as related to the particular analyze particularly the conceptual outlines the methodologies used to test the hypotheses. It explains the details of data collection, along with the data processing procedures and analytical techniques developed in order to improve the particular satisfaction of the case study firm.
Chapter 4 reports the effects regarding information research coming from a questionnaire study with regard to detailed statistics in addition to research with the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 19.0 along with SEM to analyses using Smart Partial Least Squares (PLS). Multiple regression research is placed on check out the relationships between dependable variable along with the independent variables. PLS is now acts as an add-on to SPSS to show the correlation or causal relationship among the variables.
Eventually, Chapter 5 looks at the particular findings as well as significance with the study outcomes. The significance of the review is generally partitioned in a pair of facets: significance with regard to instructional concept as well as significance with regard to practical application. Also, the item looks at the particular constraints with the study and provides strategies for upcoming study.
This research explores concerning how consumer satisfaction to be the main mechanism to guarantee the life and survival of a multi-level marketing business organization. It is essential to supply something which is required via the consumer from providing quality goods or overhaul that does not meet customer demands. Understanding its importance, a business organization needs to offer in its organizational structure for its customers so that they can always guarantee the availability, continuity and success on the sector (Oladejo, 2010). According to Johnson and Fornell (1991), the emphasis on customer satisfaction is highly crucial to gain the trust of consumers for products and service offered. One of the secrets of success of any enterprise is customer satisfaction. It contributes a chief outcome of marketing application and operations, keeping immutable and steady relationships between vendors and customers; it has an easy and positive relationship with customer loyalty and therefore with customer profitability (Sleilati, 2011).
The focus of the research is connected to determine average gap score (between customer's perceptions and expectations) for every single services attribute and to assess a company's support quality along just about every of the 5 SERVQUAL dimensions comprising of reliability, responsiveness, assurance, empathy and real. The SERVQUAL conceptual model serves as a concise framework for understanding, measuring and improving overhaul quality (Parasuraman et. al.1988). SERVQUAL has two elements to it: Customer Expectations and Customer Perceptions.
The subject of building customer loyalty has come to be the forefront of many organizations through the strong competitive sector where hundreds of firms scramble for consumers (Michelleg, 2012) it is because repeat customers present additional referrals (Heiman, 2012). By understanding consumer preferences will help to build long-term loyalty and it will ensure life-long relationship (Shanmugasundaram, 2008).
The objective of the literature comment is to identify and discuss a theoretical framework that may be used as an origin towards the development of a procedure for measuring customer satisfaction and consumer loyalty and to shows off the concepts surrounding the phenomenon. This study attempts to develop a scale to assess customer satisfaction and consumer loyalty in marketing using a mixed-course of action research style and scale development methodology adapted from Churchill (1979) and DeVellis (2011). It further examines a conceptual model for customer loyalty assessment incorporating perceptions and expectations of consumer, perceived service quality and customer satisfaction.
This chapter reviews the literature as related to the particular analyze. Conceptual definitions and background theories on service quality are obtained through textbooks on service quality and research articles in different databases. Since the concept of service quality is rooted within a sector and marketing literature, the researcher relied heavily on the abundant literature inside in these service settings. Using the terms „perceived service quality‟, „perceptions‟, „expectations, „SERVQUAL‟, „customer satisfaction‟ and “customer loyalty‟ revealed an abundant source of research articles, mainly in the following journals: Journal of Service Study, Journal of Marketing, Journal of Services Marketing, Managing Service Quality, Journal of Marketing and Journal of Business Research. The main databases used to extract these beginnings were Emerald Intelligence; Science Direct; Information Science & Technology Abstracts; Expanded Educational ASAP Plus. The electronic Dissertations (PROQUEST) had concerning 200 doctoral dissertations with regards to service quality in a very last ten years, of which just 8 were in Consumer Loyalty.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Figure 3 : Conceptual Framework of StremTech company
This dissertation intends to find answers to the following questions:
(1) Is there a significant difference between customers‟ expectations and their perceptions concerning StemTech's performance?
(2) How are customers‟ expectations related to their perceptions concerning StemTech's service quality?
(3) How are customers‟ perceptions related to their assessment of StemTech's service quality?
(4) What is the relationship between perceived service quality and customer satisfaction?
(5) Does customer satisfaction serve as a mediating factor between perceived service quality and customer loyalty?
H1: Expectations and perceptions are significantly co-related at the .05 alpha level or greater. H2: Expectations are positively linked with perceived service quality.
H3: Perception is positively linked with perceived service quality.
H4: Perceived service quality is positively linked with customer satisfaction.
H5: Customer satisfaction serves as a mediating factor between perceived service quality and customer loyalty at an alpha level of .05 or greater.
A gap analysis helps bridge that space by highlighting which requirements are being met and which are not (Margaret, 2011). Likewise, in measuring service quality, gap denotes the gap between customer's expectations (E) or what the service should provide and the customer's perception (P) of what the service actually provides (Shahin, 2006) where
Gap = Perception - Expectation
Parasuraman “gap model” which regarded currently being essentially the most detailed instrument, have been developed by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, as well as Berry (1985, 1988) to test the actual gap regarding equally customers as well as service providers; gaps inside service they provide. In accordance with Alajmi (2011), this gap model constructed the actual model as function connected with five dimensions, four that concern the provider and the actual fifth gap concerns the customer gap. In line with Parasuraman, Zeithaml and Berry (1988), Gap 5 may be the perceived service quality as it is the difference between customer‟s expectations and also the customer‟s perceptions with the delivered providers, if there is no gap existing it implies the providers delivered are meeting the actual customers‟ expectations, whereas outstanding service quality is once the customer‟s perception exceeds their particular expectation which in turn relies within the size as well as direction with the four gaps associated with the delivery with the service quality within the provider‟s part (Zeithaml, 1988).
The assumption of RATER is that customers can evaluate a business's service quality by comparing their perceptions with their expectations. RATER features the five parts of a company: Reliability, Guarantee, Tangibles, Sympathy, and Responsiveness. GAP analysis is additionally very crucial to utilize the result of RATER. RATER allows businesses to boost upon the consumer service variable they would like to improve by making use of the analysis of the customers (Zeithaml et al, 1990).
This chapter is designed in a way that leads easily towards the points that individuals wish to make regarding my research questions and goals of study that finest aligned with the methodological choices discuss within the study. This means that, I shall probably discuss the way data ended up being collected, what samples all I took, how a questionnaire ended up being designed, the measurement of variables and the coding of data or information.
The SERVQUAL model proposed simply by Parasuraman et al (1988) was used as main guide for the structured set of questions where information was collected accurately on the customers' expectations and perception of service quality. This information provided home elevators the following research proposes, to analyse the applicability from the SERVQUAL model inside the Stemtech context and know how the consumers perceieve service quality in StemTech and discover which attributes bring satisfaction.
Cooper and Emory (1995) define methodology as “research as step-by-step inquiry directed at supplying information to resolve problems”. In this particular classification, authors emphasize the importance associated with step-by-step inquiry and talk about of which to offer the objectives associated with scientific study the strategy should be sensible along with satisfy the researcher requirements.Research design is known as the framework in the strategy that will guide the actual collection along with analysis of data to help answer unique research queries. The role in the research design is always to provide an overview to guideline the collecting, analyzing along with interpretation of data (Creswell, 2009).
In the context of quantitative research, I am using structural equation modeling in partial least squares (PLS). Structural equation modeling (SEM) first appeared in the marketing literature in the early 1980s (e.g., Bagozzi 1994; Bagozzi and Yi 1988; Fornell and Larcker 1981a, 1981b), but in recent years, its application is getting increased popularity (Hair et al, 2011). PLS has been used by a growing number of researchers from various disciplines such as strategic management (e.g., Hulland, 1999), management information systems (e.g., Dibbern, Goles, Hirschheim, & Jayatilaka, 2004), e-business (e.g., Pavlou & Chai, 2002), organizational behavior (e.g., Higgins, Duxbury, & Irving, 1992), marketing (e.g., Reinartz, Krafft, & Hoyer, 2004), and consumer behavior (e.g., Fornell & Robinson, 1983). Since 1987, for instance, more than 20 studies using PLS have been published in five top-tier marketing journals (Eggert, 2007) - the majority in the last six years. PLS is the method of choice for success factor studies in marketing (Albers, 2009) and for estimating the various national customer satisfaction index models (e.g., Fornell, 1992).
I will use the SERVQUAL 5 measurements (Tangibles, Reliability, Responsiveness, Assurance and Empathy) that are subdivided into 21 questions, which are directed to computing service quality within the stem cell product in our case.We added a single aspect, product and that is subdivided into two statements variety as well as quality of the products. This aspect is at series the specialized quality aspect suggested simply by Gronroos (1982) that could be used for us to evaluate service quality as well as this is pertinent when it comes to StemTech that mainly cope with products.
While predetermined through the SERVQUAL model, the statements tend to be split into two parts, the initial portion seeks to evaluate the expectations involving customers along with the second portion seeks to evaluate their own perceptions. There are 1 item and 2 items for customer satisfaction and loyalty respectively. Other than that, there is also a demographic portion to provide basic specifics of answerers on gender, regularity involving searching as well as normal month-to-month bills. This can be make it possible for us have a better knowledge of the sort answerers as well as connect the item for us to where did they experience service quality in StemTech. The actual questionnaire with the coding is attached at the Appendix 3.
In this study, the SERVQUAL items / dimensions are the main variables and I code these items / dimensions in order to ease my analysis of data collected. Morever, demographic information will be collected from respondents and these variables have to be coded as well for analysis. Below is the coding of the variables for analysis. SERVQUAL items / dimensions:
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Data on the different multi-item constructs representing to the diverse segments of service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty will be initially tested for reliability and validity by computing Cronbach's a values, and factor analysis with the results will be demonstrated in table structure. Factor analysis is performed to evaluate convergent validity. The outcomes of the factor analysis and reliability tests will be displayed in tables. All unique loadings are above the base of 0.5 recommended by Hair et al. (1998). Convergent validity is shown when each of the measurement items loads with a significant t-value on its latent construct. Typically, the p-value of this t-value should be significant at least at the 0.05 alpha protection level.
Marketing is actually central to economic development, so does Multi Level Marketing (MLM). MLM spurs demand. This can be a key function with spurring demand. The idea creates wants that this manufacturing interests of a country can then satisfy. In the actual way, multi level marketing can generate capital by using consumption currency for future projects. One of the five thrusts in National Mission future projects (2006-2020) is to improve standard and sustainability of quality of life. By researching on the service quality, customer satisfaction and loyalty of the StemTech products, I hope to bring about some awareness to Malaysians so that they can realize the importance of consuming StemTech products to improve and sustain the quality of life.
MLM is a business chance. Multi-level marketing business of StemTech is not a get rich quick scheme. An affiliate must have the right mentality. It takes ability, constant studying, and a great deal of diligent work to get the business off the ground. To meet the varying requests of different individuals, the network marketing or MLM players require a vast foray of products and services in their bouquet. Not simply this, almost all suppliers offer the freedom to customers to opt for the most suitable product for themselves through combining attributes of a numbers of products and services together. Besides, organizations that utilizing multi-level marketing concept can use the device to help fortify the web interface between service quality and productivity together with figure out optimal distribution joined with scarce resources. Organizations could improve customized services and products that are all the more nearly adjusted with individual customer's principle utility works, along these lines allowing the organization to get more criticalness from degrees of customers, leading to higher all round customer earning (Zeithaml et al, 2001).
Aeker, D.A. & Day, G.S. Marketing Research.4th Ed. New York: Wiley Corp.
Babbie, E. (2007). The practice of social research (11th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth. Bryman, A. & Bell, E. (2007). Business Research Methods (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford.
Churchill, G. A. (1979). A Paradigm for Developing Better Measures of Marketing Constructs. Journal of Marketing Research, 16(1), 64-73.
Cooper, D.R. and Emory, C.W.(1995). Business research methods (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Irwin, McGraw-Hill.
Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.
De Vaus, D.A. (1993), Surveys in Social Research (3rd edn.), London: UCL Press.
Heiman, M.(2012). Get to the heart of customer experience. Impact Learning Systems. Retrieved from http://www.impactlearning.com/about/who-we-are/the-impact-difference/
Khan, T.(2000). Is StemTeck, sold by StemTech, actually enhancing the stem? Retrieved from http://www.justanswer.com/medical/3frja-stemteck-sold-stemtech-actually-enhancing-stem.html
Lee, W.C., Nik, K.N.M., Nooraini,S., Nur, H.M.L., Hafnida, O.Y.A. (2012). Customer Retention Structural Model of Direct Selling Employees. American Journal of Economics, July, 2012.
Michelleg.(2012). Easy steps to building loyal customers. Retrieved from http://blogs.terrapinn.com/total- customer/2012/07/03/easy-steps-building-loyal-customers/ Naik, C.N.K., Gantasala, S.B. and Prabhakar, G.V. Article review: Service Quality (Servqual) and its Effect on Customer Satisfaction in Retailing. European Journal of Social Sciences - Volume 16, Number 2 (2010). Retrieved from http://www.eurojournals.com/ejss_16_2_08.pdf
Open Press (2009).Network Marketing and Nutritional Supplements. Retrieved from http://www.theopenpress.com/Network-Marketing-and-Nutritional/450article.html
Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A. and Berry, L.L. (1988), “SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality”, Journal of Retailing, pp. 12-40.
Polit, D.F., Beck, C.T. and Hungler, B.P. (2001), Essentials of Nursing Research: Methods, Appraisal and Utilization. 5th Ed., Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Schreiber, J.B. (2008). Pilot Study. Retrieved from http://srmo.sagepub.com/view/sage-encyc-qualitative-research- methods/n320.xml
Shanmugasundaram, S.(2008). Customer Relationship Management: Modern Trends And Perspectives.India: Prentice-Hall.
Stemtechbiz.com.my (2013). Retrieved fromhttp://bizinformation.com.my/www.stemtechbiz.com.my#summary
Zeithaml, V.A., Parasuraman, A. and Berry, L.L.(1990). Delivering Quality Service-Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations.New York: The Free Press.
Zeithaml, Valarie A.; Rust, Roland T.; Lemon, Katherine N. The Customer Pyramid: Creating and serving Profitable Customers. California Management Review Summer 2001, Vol. 43 Issue 4, p118.
Akademische Arbeit, 16 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 31 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 44 Seiten
Ausarbeitung, 14 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 20 Seiten
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 53 Seiten
Projektarbeit, 22 Seiten
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 12 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 34 Seiten
Akademische Arbeit, 16 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 31 Seiten
Masterarbeit, 44 Seiten
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 53 Seiten
Projektarbeit, 22 Seiten
Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veröffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bücher spezialisiert. Der GRIN Verlag steht damit als erstes Unternehmen für User Generated Quality Content. Die Verlagsseiten GRIN.com, Hausarbeiten.de und Diplomarbeiten24 bieten für Hochschullehrer, Absolventen und Studenten die ideale Plattform, wissenschaftliche Texte wie Hausarbeiten, Referate, Bachelorarbeiten, Masterarbeiten, Diplomarbeiten, Dissertationen und wissenschaftliche Aufsätze einem breiten Publikum zu präsentieren.
Kostenfreie Veröffentlichung: Hausarbeit, Bachelorarbeit, Diplomarbeit, Dissertation, Masterarbeit, Interpretation oder Referat jetzt veröffentlichen!