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55 Seiten, Note: "memoire"
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION OF THE STUDY
1.2. Background of the study
1.3. Statement of the problem
1.4. Research gap
1.5. Research questions
1.6. Research objectives
1.6.1. General objectives
1.6.2. Specific objectives
1.7. Research hypothesis
1.8. Significance of the study
1.9. Research method
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1.2. Purpose of pornography
2.1.3. Impact of pornography use
2.1.4. Internet pornography statistics
2.2. Sexual practice and prostitutions
2.2.2. Social and economic factors of prostitutions
2.2.3. The effects of sexual practices and prostitutions
2.3. Study was studied in Sweden and methods used
2.4. Conceptual framework
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.2. Design of the study
3.3. Target population
3.4. Sample design
3.4.1. Sampling method
3.4.2. Sample size
3.5. Data analysis and reporting
3.5.1. Descriptive statistics
3.5.2. Inferential statistics
CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION
4.2. Presentation of findings
4.2.1. Profile of respondents
4.2.2. Discussion about the study
4.3. Background variables and sexual practice
4.3.1. Variation of sexual practice by category of age group
4.3.2. Variation of sexual practice by gender
4.3.3. Variation of sexual practice by category of education level
4.4. Background variables and pornography consumption variability
4.5. Inferential analysis
4.5.1. Binary logistic regression model
4.5.2. Interpretation of results from logistic regression model
4.6. Summary of research analysis
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.2. Discussion of findings
Appendix 1: Questionnaire for Students
Appendix 2: Academic Recommendation for Data Collections
This work dedicated to Almighty God, my valued parents NGARUKIYE Joram and NYIRAKARAMO Zibie, brother and sisters, my entire family, all my friends and colleagues and all statisticians, all above this work is dedicated.
This dissertation has been prepared with participation of a large number of individuals. I would like to express my gratitude to all of them.
Firstly, all praise to Almighty Lord who has given me an opportunity to do this research as a part of Bachelor program, to God is the glory for his amazing gifts of health, ingenuity and grace to the point of this submission I owe all to him.
I would like to thank the entire UR community for giving me an opportunity to undertake this research and assisted me throughout the research process.
A study of this nature would not have just been completed without people’s assistance and contribution in terms of resources and encouragement. This study therefore is indebted a lot to several people to whom I am very grateful. I am profoundly grateful to my supervisor Mr. Theogene RIZINDE who guided me, his attention, time, encouragement and guidance made me successfully complete this work.
I can’t forget to thank my brothers and sisters especially DUSENGE Jean Felix, Ernestine DUSHIME, TWAYIGIZE Justin and family of Ernest Dessailly UWIMANA for their valued help in my whole life, especially in my studies including financially support, ideas and advices given to me. I really thank them abundantly may God fulfil their needs.
I fully acknowledge the encouragement of my family members. I would like also to thank all students of Applied Statistics who cooperated with me through discussions and exchanging ideas while carrying out this research.
Thank you all
The study was carried out to investigate the association between pornography consumption and sexual practice among adolescents of Rwanda in academic area especially in Huye District. Pornography consumption is considered as a main dangerous drug to inspire people doing sex. The motivation of doing this research is the increasing of sexual diseases and unexpected pregnancy in youths under 20 years. This is due to engage in watching porn films at such time. The study was carried out in Huye District academically in Regina pacis and Butare secondary School. The population under study was 281 students under 20 years old, grouped in these secondary schools from which a sample of 74 students was selected. A case study research design was adopted and participants are distributed in in two strata and sample size distributed proportional to the size. The study used questionnaire while descriptive and inferential statistics was used for data analysis and reporting. More women (54.2%) than men (45.8%) had ever consumed pornography sometime means that more female are high consumers than low consumers (male). Among 39 students who replied that they need sex after watching 26 of them (66.7%) are men and 13 (33.3%) are women. 27 of the sample had had sexual intercourse, of swhich 63% reported contraceptive use at their intercourse. Among the 27 who had had sex, most of them are studied in Ordinary level (51.9%) and 48.1% from Advanced level. According to the respondent, about 27 who had had sex those caused by watching porn are 20 (74.5%). About negative impact only 6 students (22.2%) always afraid, and 4 (14.8%) feel lonely in society. The materials used in watching pornography are phones (66.2%), internet (20.3%) and computer & television both occupied 6.8% each. Even if they watched it most of them (70.3%) replied that pornography is bad rather being good.
This study recommends a carefully review on the reforms to be taken in relation to education to reduce the impact of pornography in sexual practice among adolescents in Rwanda.
Figure 2. 1: Relationship between variables
Table 3.1: Sampling frame of the study
Table 4. 1 : Distribution of participants by age group
Table 4. 2: Distribution of participant by gender
Table 4. 3: Distribution of participants by education level
Table 4. 4: Descriptive statistics on people watching porn
Table 4. 5: Descriptive statistics on how people understand porn
Table 4. 6: Descriptive statistics on how porn is likeable
Table 4. 7: Descriptive statistics on time they spend on porn per day
Table 4. 8: Descriptive statistics on material used in watching porn film
Table 4. 9: Descriptive statistics on feeling after watching porn film
Table 4. 10: Descriptive statistics on hours spend during watching time
Table 4. 11: Descriptive statistics on money spent on buying porn film
Table 4. 12: Statistics on sexual practice
Table 4. 13: Descriptive statistics about contraceptive use
Table 4. 14: Descriptive statistics on cause of sex doing to those who have done it
Table 4. 15: Descriptive statistics on negative impact face by those who have done sex
Table 4. 16: Summary statistics and chi-square results for sexual practice by age group
Table 4. 17: Summary statistics and chi-square results for sexual practice by gender
Table 4. 18: Summary statistics and chi-square results for sexual practice by level of education
Table 4. 19: Summary statistics for pornography consumption by age group
Table 4. 20: Summary statistics for pornography consumption by gender
Table 4. 21: Summary statistics and chi-square results for feeling after watching porn by gender
Table 4. 22: logistic regression model results
This is an introductory chapter intended to deal with the background of the study, the statement of the problem, the research questions, the objectives of the study, the significance of the study, research gap, research method entitled the association between pornography consumption and sexual practices among adolescents in Rwanda.
The October 1996 issue of life magazine included, among other things, a photograph of Marilyn Monroe naked. Most people will agree that had the same picture appeared in the pages of Hustler, it would have been pornographic (Michael C. Rea, 2001). Furthermore, the picture was considered pornographic when it originally appeared in a calendar in the late 1940’s, and it was banned in two states. (Michael C. Rea, 2001)
Not only pictures can be pornographic, however. Literature and performances both live and on film can be as well (Michael C. Rea, 2001). Thus, for example, books like Story of O or magazines like Penthouse letters count as pornography, regardless of whether they happen to include explicit pictures, performances, and literature can be pornographic (Michael C. Rea, 2001).
In the late 1990s, pornographic films were distributed on DVD (Paul Fishbein, 1991). Pornography can be distributed over the Internet in a number of ways, including pay sites, video hosting services, and peer-to-peer file sharing (Paul Fishbein, 1991). While pornography had been traded electronically since the 1980s, it was in the invention of the World Wide Web in 1991 as well as the opening of the Internet to the general public around the same time that led to an explosion in online pornography. (Paul Fishbein, 1991)
Currently, pornography can be watched on internet online. Buying DVDs is out of date because the technology is going on day to day. The internet porn is considered as a threat to the society because most of youths are concentrated into that use of technology. They use also their smart phone not only and their PC laptops in their bedrooms. Researchers showed that in 1,521 smart phones in UK owned by teens of 18, 24% having pornography materials on their mobile handset. 84% of romantic relationships involved. (Paul Fishbein, 1991).
General pornography statistics show that every second 28,258 users are watching pornography on the internet (webroot.com). Every second $3,075.64 is being spent on pornography on the internet (webroot.com). Every second 372 people are typing the word "adult" into search engines (webroot.com). 35% of all internet downloads are related to pornography (webroot.com). 25% of all search engine queries are related to pornography (webroot.com). Search engines get 116,000 queries every day related to child pornography (webroot.com).
After showing above statistics, the researchers suggest that most popular category of porn consumption is youths (U.S department of justice, 2014). Youth have the great density of age 15 - 24. According to the data of internet porn users, general society survey showed that 45% of teen children look at porn (U.S department of justice, 2014).
In Africa, the production and distribution of pornographic films are both activities that are lawful in many, but by no means all (Pornography by region). For instance, in Botswana the possession of "Indecent and obscene material such as pornographic books, magazines, films, videos, DVDs and software" is prohibited in Botswana (Pornography by region). The distribution of pornography is illegal in Egypt (Pornography by region).
In Rwanda, on average, according to the report, 27% of the visitors to porn sites are female, 3 points above the global 24% (en.igihe.com, Dec - 2015). It is on Sunday that most visitors from Rwanda click onto the sites with 10-11pm being the most popular hours, where most stay on watch for duration of 11 minutes, on average, compared to the global average of 9 minutes (en.igihe.com, Dec - 2015).
The advent of mobile technologies has too contributed to the visits to the porn sites (en.igihe.com, Dec - 2015). The report says; “with just 4 percentage points between them, Rwanda’s smart phone-based traffic proportions nearly match up with those we have observed on an international level (en.igihe.com, Dec - 2015. In Rwanda, watching posts include; desktops (53%), phone (41%) and tablets (6%) (en.igihe.com, Dec - 2015).
Consequently, according to the Centre for Disease Control a 2013 in U.S survey of high school students found that: 47% of those surveyed have had sex (CDC, 2013). 15% of surveyed students have had sex with 4 or more partners in their life. Only 22% of sexually active teens have been tested for HIV. In 2013 approximately 10,000 people aged 13-24 were diagnosed with HIV (CDC, 2013).
However, few researchers had done on this topic and I needed to research on the topic again to see if there is any association in secondary schools. Why secondary school? Because the existence of adolescents is there in secondary schools. The purpose of this study is to contribute in a sustainable manner to fight against illegal sexual practice among adolescents.
Rwandan adolescents are considered as most important future leaders. The country needs them and has implemented policies to protect and educate them for future leaders of the country. On other side youths have a threat of being attacked by sexual transmission diseases and unexpected teenage pregnancies (UNFPA, 2013).
A 2013 United Nations Population Fund report, Motherhood in Childhood, indicates that every year in developing countries, 7.3 million girls under the age of 18 give birth (UNFPA, 2013). Teenage pregnancy should be a concern in Rwanda. The Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey 2014 to 2015 shows a worrying trend of increase in teenage mothers mostly aged 15 to 19 (RDHS, 2015). According to Rwanda Demographic Health Survey, 6% of young women ages between 15 and 19 years, especially in rural areas, have already begun bearing children (RDHS, 2010).
Although the HIV prevalence rate in Rwanda is lower than in many other sub-Saharan countries, it is still the main killer of those over five years of age and comes after only malaria as the cause of death for children under five years (UN in Rwanda, 2014).
There are many factors which influence youths to sexual practices. It is against the above background that the researcher wants to carry out this research and find the contribution of pornography consumption on sexual practice among teenagers.
Pornography consumption and sexual behaviour were studied in Sweden, with an aim to investigate any associations (U Hanson, 2004). Participants were 718 students from 47 high school classes, mean age 18 years, in a medium-sized Swedish city (U Hanson, 2004). More men (98%) than women (72%) had ever consumed pornography (U Hanson, 2004). More male high ssconsumers than low consumers or women got sexually aroused by, fantasized about, or tried to perform acts seen in a pornographic film (U Hanson, 2004). Three quarters of the sample had had sexual intercourse, of which 71% reported contraceptive use at first intercourse and group sex (adj. OR 1.95; 95% CI 0.70-5.47) tended to be associated (U Hanson, 2004). However, very few researchers investigated about this topic. It is in this context the researcher needed to know if there is any significant association between pornography consumption and sexual practice among adolescents in Rwanda.
The study was basically sought to answer the following questions:
- Are young people like watching pornography films?
- To what extent has pornography consumption contributed towards sexuality increase in Secondary schools?
To investigate whether there is the impact of pornography consumption to sexual practice among adolescents of Rwanda.
- To see the material used during pornography consumption
- To analyze the contribution of pornography consumption on sexual practice among adolescents of Secondary School.
According to (Churchill & Paul Peter, 1986) a hypothesis is a statement that specifies how two or more measurable variables are related. Our research hypothesis was significant relationship between pornography consumption and sexual practice among adolescents of population of Rwanda.
The findings will be useful to various groups of people. Firstly, the government of Rwanda will use the research to identify the contribution of pornographic films to cause sexual practice in teenagers. This will enable the government to make related policies and taking appropriate measures. Secondly, this will be useful to the Secondary Schools management as it will provide information about the case of the sexual practice in order take policies. Lastly, this will add a body of knowledge to other scholars in the same area of study.
The researcher used primary data. Data was gathered through a questionnaire. Questionnaire was administered for the purpose of gathering primary data from the field.
Probability sampling has used to select the population of interest. Random sampling was used to make sure that only members of secondary schools are selected. This will depend on their willingness and availability to take part in the exercise of study.
The sample size has included males and females, member of chosen secondary schools. They was selected from the total population and the sample size was determined by the Slovin’s formula: n=N/(1+Ne2 ). Where n is the sample size of the study. N is the total population of the research and e (0.10) is the sampling error. However, total population was 281 and the sample size was 74 distributed to stratum according to the size of the strata. Data was analysed using SPSS 20 and descriptive and inferential (logistic regression model) are used to test any association.
What is pornography? The definitions of ‘pornography’ currently found into six different categories according to those who try to define it: those that define ‘pornography’ as the sale of sex for profit, those that define it as a form of bad art, those that define it as portraying men or women as, as only, or only as sexual beings or sexual objects, those that define it as a form of obscenity, those that define it as a form of or contributor to oppression, and those that define it as material that is intended to produce or has the effect of producing sexual arousal (Michael C. Rea, 2001) .
In general, pornography is the depiction of erotic behaviour (as in pictures or writing) intended to cause sexual excitement, it is material (as books or a photograph) that depicts erotic behaviour and is intended to cause sexual excitement and then it is the depiction of acts in a sensational manner so as to arouse a quick intense emotional reaction <the pornography of violence>
Pornography is used to satisfy sexual urges and fantasies (Johnson, 2014). People who say that they buy pornography only to view and read the articles (such as Playboy) are simply liars (Johnson, 2014). If they wanted articles, they could have found similar articles and topics in non- pornographic magazines (Johnson, 2014). Pornography serves a sexual purpose, each and every time it is used. There is no such thing as a “nonsexual” use of pornography (Johnson, 2014). People view it and usually masturbate to it. Pornography provides a playground for deviant and violent fantasies to be developed and perfected, eventually leading to some individuals acting those fantasies out (Johnson, 2014).
There is no doubt that practicing and memorizing new information (also referred to as studying) improves our skill base, and if repeatedly reviewed; the material generally improves skill base and eventually behaviour (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). The impact of practicing and rehearsing results in new or altered beliefs and behaviours is supported by the cognitive behavioural theories and therapies that are most commonly used to treat psychological and behavioural problems (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). Utilizing pornography has some questionable benefits for those who need to develop and reinforce healthy and/or appropriate sexual interests and behaviours (Scott A. Johnson, 2015).
However, when the pornography use becomes more frequent or when used to cope with negative emotions I argue that the negative impact far outweighs any potential healthy benefit.
Consider that the use of pornography generally occurs in private, a solo and personal activity. The viewing of pornography reinforces impersonal sex, sex that is one-sided and selfish in nature, relying heavily on the user’s fantasy (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). The user of pornography imagines and fantasizes their personal interaction with the person or object represented in the pornographic material (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). Remember that the persons depicted in pornography never interact with the user; they never talk back, make requests, place demands, or in any way control how the material is used (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). What is reinforced for the user of pornography is one-sided, superficial, controlling sexual experiences. Pornography is a compliant sexual partner (Scott A. Johnson, 2015).
Sexual fantasies involve thoughts, plans, and images that are sexually arousing to you (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). Sexual fantasies are a form of sexual self-stimulation. If you masturbate during or following the sexual fantasy, then you are reinforcing the fantasy with a pleasurable reward (sexual stimulation and orgasm). You are more likely to repeat the same sexual fantasies when reinforced (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). If the content or theme is healthy and involving consensual, respectful sexual activity, then you are more likely to act sexual in healthy ways. If your themes are deviant in nature, then you are supporting engaging in deviant sexual behavior. Fantasies have a strong influence on our behavior (Johnson, 2007; 2014). Anecdotally, as a psychologist as well as my 27 years addressing sexual predators I believe that all behavior is planned, that is, we think about what we are going to do and then decide to act on it (Johnson, 2007; 2014).
Therefore, if you are often engaging in deviant sexual fantasies and reinforcing these with sexual stimulation (masturbation), then you are encouraging yourself to act-out the deviant and/or violent behavior (Johnson, 2007; 2014).
The issue of how pornography impacts deviant sexual thoughts, fantasies and behavior have been widely debated (Itzen, 1992). I assert that the majority of people who view pornographic material are not likely negatively impacted unless they have a predisposition for violence or sexual violence, are using pornography frequently, or are using violent and/or extreme pornography. When pornography is used more frequently (e.g., several times per week, hours per week), then I assert that the pornographic material would likely have more negative and destructive impact on the viewer. What has yet to be researched is examining the relationship of the frequency of viewing pornography and engaging in violent crimes including child molestation and rape.
However, the general finding is that the negative and destructive impact of pornography appears to significantly outweigh any positive benefit (though again the frequency of viewing the pornographic material does not appear to be addressed or specified) (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). Consider the following research. For further research and information see (Johnson, 2007; 2014 & Russell 1980, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1999). Osanka & Johann (1989) found that pornography played a significant role in physical and sexual violence for both the physical abuser and sexual offender (also see Johnson, 2007 & 2009). Hazelwood & Warren (1995) indicate that sexual fantasies are an important component of sexual crime. Zillman & Bryant (1986) found that after massive exposure to pornographic materials, men found pornography less offensive and less objectionable. They found that massive exposure to pornography significantly increased men’s sexual callousness toward women. When intoxicated, men found more extreme and violent pornography more acceptable (Johnson, 2014b).
For victims who are forced to view pornographic material, it can be even more degrading and fearful (Scott A. Johnson, 2015). Many offenders choose to show their victims’ pornography and then demand that the victim perform the same behavior or sex act, regardless of the possible injury, pain, or force involved. In addition, many victims are themselves forced to have sexual pictures and videos made of them, further reducing the victim into deeper depths of fear and dehumanization. Cramer & McFarlane (1994) found that 40% of 87 battered women who filed charges reported that their male partner used one or more pornographic materials. Use of the pornographic materials was significantly associated with the women being asked or forced to participate in violent sexual acts, including rape. Some findings provided by Hazelwood (1998) suggest that 61% of serial killers (not necessarily sexual murders) used and/or had pornography collections and at least 90% of pedophiles used and/ or had pornography collections. Anecdotally, I have found that the majority of sexual and physical abusers regularly use some form of pornography.
Viewing pornography and imitating what is depicted in the pornography have played a key role in the sexual victimization of women as well as to the physical abuse of women (Bergen & Bogle's, 2000; DeKeseredy & Schwartz, 1998). When pornography was used just prior to an abusive incident, the pornography appeared to have a tempering or lessening effect on the degree of violence in that episode of violence (Mancini, Reckdenwald, & Beauregard, 2012). In addition, the younger the age of first pornography use, the more likely that individual will engage in physically and sexually assaultive behavior and cause a higher degree of humiliation in their victims than those who begin pornography usage as adults (Mancini, Reckdenwald, & Beauregard, 2012).
Ted Bundy (1989) said: “My experience with pornography that deals on a violent level with sexuality is that once you become addicted to it and I look at this as a kind of addiction I would keep looking for more potent, more explicit, more graphic kinds of materials. Until you reach the point where the pornography only goes so far, you reach that jumping-off point where you begin to wonder is maybe actually doing it will give you that which is beyond just reading about it or looking at it.”
Violent pornography use resulted in significantly greater attitudes supporting aggressions and rape than nonviolent pornography (Allen, Gebhardt, & Giery, 1995), although nonviolent pornography still resulted in some sexually aggressive behavior (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss, 2000). In addition, studies have found that exposure to pornography containing nudity only versus sex Acts or violence reduced aggression whereas pornography containing nonviolent and/or violent depictions increased aggressive behavior (Allen, D'Alessio, & Brezgel, 1995). Heavy pornography use was approximately three times more likely to result in sexually aggressive behavior (Frank, 1990). Those with histories of childhood abuse and/or a family history positive for parental violence and were frequent users of pornography were much more likely to engage in sexual aggression versus those with similar childhood backgrounds but who were not using pornography often (Malamuth, Addison, & Koss, 2000).
The investigator is often negatively impacted by having to review the offender’s pornography (Johnson, 2009).The impact of viewing the offender’s pornography can be stressful and at times devastating due to the nature and content of the material. Imagine having to sift through hundreds and at times thousands of pornographic photos and videos. The material is nauseating, stressful, disgusting, and at times, horrifying. Even more disturbing is that the police officer understands that the pornographic photos and videos brought significant pleasure and joy to the offender and may have provided a guide for the offender’s crimes. The pornography in and of itself is wrought with thousands of victims that will likely never be identified or helped. Some of the pornography may involve the victim or victims of the current offense, which may negatively impact the officer as well (Johnson, 2009).
According to developmental psychologists, during critical periods of childhood, a child’s brain is being programmed for sexual orientation (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). During this period, the mind appears to be developing a “hardwire” for what the person will be aroused by or attracted to. “Exposure to healthy sexual norms and attitudes during this critical period can result in the child developing a healthy sexual orientation (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). “In contrast, if there is exposure to pornography during this period, sexual deviance may become imprinted on the child’s ‘hard drive’ to become a permanent part of his or her sexual orientation” (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006).
Young children are not neurologically ready to process sexually stimulating information (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). The exposure of children to pornography can traumatize them to such an extent that they cannot fully comprehend or assimilate the material (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). A frightened four-year old who is forced to observe or be part of sexual intercourse between two adults cannot fully understand what is happening. His memory of the event may not be intact, yet he may suddenly repeat phrases he heard during the experience, have intrusive flashbacks may suddenly become terrified in the presence of a male adult or may refuse to go to bed, remembering on some level what occurred in bed (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). These are ways in which children re-experience fragmented aspects of trauma through behavior, sleep disturbances, or post-traumatic stress symptoms such as intrusive flashbacks. This is a very typical reaction of children who have been exposed to pornography (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006).
According to National Coalition for the Protection of Children & Families,( 2010), 47% of families in the United States reported that pornography is a problem in their home, pornography use increases the marital infidelity rate by more than 300%, 40 percent of “sex addicts” lose their spouses, 58 percent suffer considerable financial losses, and about a third lose their jobs, 68% of divorce cases involve one party meeting a new paramour over the internet while 56% involve one party having an “obsessive interest” in pornographic websites (NCPCF, 2010).
News media organizations often treat specific internet safety issues as fads -after being the hot topic, issues fall out of favor becoming “old news” in spite of ongoing risks and threats (webroot.com). Internet pornography was the first big internet safety topic to make news, and it has remained largely out of favor among the popular press ever since (webroot.com; linkedin.com). Pornography hurts adults, children, couples, families, and society. Among adolescents, pornography hinders the development of a healthy sexuality, and among adults, it distorts sexual attitudes and social realities. In families, pornography use leads to marital dissatisfaction, infidelity, separation, and divorce (webroot.com; linkedin.com).
According to webroot.com, general pornography statistics show that every second 28,258 users are watching pornography on the internet, every second $3,075.64 is being spent on pornography on the internet every second 372 people are typing the word "adult" into search engines, 40 million American people regularly visit porn sites, 35% of all internet downloads are related to pornography, 25% of all search engine queries are related to pornography, or about 68 million search queries a day, one third of porn viewers are women search engines get 116,000 queries every day related to child pornography, 34% of internet users have experienced unwanted exposure to pornographic content through ads, pop up ads, misdirected links or emails, 2.5 billion emails sent or received every day contain porn, every 39 minutes a new pornography video is being created in the United States, about 200,000 Americans are “porn addicts”(webroot.com).
Teenagers with frequent exposure to sexual content on TV have a substantially greater likelihood of teenage pregnancy; and the likelihood of teen pregnancy was twice as high when the quantity of sexual content exposure within the viewing episodes was high (webroot.com). Pornography viewing by teens disorients them during the developmental phase when they have to learn how to handle their sexuality and when they are most vulnerable to uncertainty about their sexual beliefs and moral value six (webroot.com). A significant relationship also exists among teens between frequent pornography use and feelings of loneliness, including major depression, adolescents exposed to high levels of pornography have lower levels of sexual self-esteem (webroot.com)
In South Africa, it is important to recognize that the Internet exists in cyberspace and is not subject to geographical boundaries (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). Everything that is accessible via the Internet is accessible by, and to, any person with a computer and a modem in any part of the world. The starting point in assessing the amount of sexually-explicit material accessible to children in South Africa is, therefore, the Internet (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). The number of pornographic Web pages jumped from 14 million in 1998 to 260 million in 2003 an almost two thousand percent increase in just five years, with over 4.2 million adult-oriented sites (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006). More than 80% of children using e-mail receive inappropriate messages and 47% receive pornographic spam on a daily basis. A majority of adult-oriented sites display adult content on the first page, which anyone could see. Nearly two-thirds had no warning or indication of the adult nature of the site. Many adult sites hinder users from leaving (“mouse trapping”) and many offer “free tours” of adult sites as part of their marketing strategy (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006).
Sexually-explicit films and publications are also available in South Africa. While there are no exact figures for the number of films and publications available, the Film and Publication Board has classified, to date, for distribution in South Africa, over 27 000 DVDs and videos containing sexually-explicit materials (Iyavar Chetty, Antoinette Basson, 2006).
The research literature on clients of prostitutes is limited. The sparse ethnographic research that is available has suggested that men who patronize prostitutes are not significantly different from men in general (Armstrong, 1978; Holzman & Pines, 1982; Tewksbury & Gagne,2002). One distinguishing trait of prostitutes’ customers, however, is that they have been shownto hold more traditional (i.e., patriarchal) views of women, and perceive an entitlement for power and control (Busch, Bell, Hotaling, & Monto, 2002).
Customers of prostitutes are often regulars, are usually employed, hold at least a high school education, and more often than not are involved in a long term relationship (Atchison,Fraser, & Lowman, 1998; Diana, 1985; McKegany & Barnard, 1996; Campbell, 1998). And while sexual activity is typical to the encounter between prostitute and customer, it is not necessarily the only or primary goal of the customer (McKegany & Barnard, 1996; Sawyer et al., 1998; Winick, 1962).
It is also important to note that violence against female prostitutes by their customers is well documented (Davis, 1993; Farley & Barkan, 1998; Horgard & Finstad, 1992; Miller, 1993; Miller & Schwartz, 1995; Silbert, 1988). However, it appears that a small minority of customers are responsible for perpetrating this violence. One recent study reported a relationship between greater use of pornographic videos and endorsement of violence among men who solicited sex from prostitutes (Monto, 1999b), although the majority (70%) of men patronizing prostitutes only rarely or never consume pornography. Specifically, two pornography use variables (having looked at pornographic magazines and having looked at pornographic video) were significantly related to both an attraction to violent sex and having previously used violence to obtain sex (Busch et al., 2002; Monto, 2000, 2001; Monto & Hotaling, 2001).
To date, the most ambitious and informative work on customers of prostitutes is that of Monto and colleagues (Busch et al., 2002; Monto, 2000, 2001; Monto & Hotaling, 2001).
According to the CDC (Center for Disease Control) a 2013 survey of high school students found that: 47% of those surveyed have had sex. 34% of them in the last 3 months and 41% of those did not use a condom the last time they had sex. 15% of surveyed students have had sex with 4 or more partners in their life (CDC, 2013).
Needless to say that this is not a theoretical discussion of the causes of prostitution, such a discussion will take us beyond the scope of this paper (Abdullahi, 2015). Rather our main task here is to explain some of the socio-economic factors or conditions which are instrumental in directing girls to prostitution (Abdullahi, 2015).
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Bachelorarbeit, 41 Seiten
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