Für neue Autoren:
kostenlos, einfach und schnell
Für bereits registrierte Autoren
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Objective of the Study
Site Description and Methodology
Results and Discussions
Participants Knowledge on Agricultural Practices
Land Access and youth engagement in agriculture
Land Access and user Rights
Decisions on Selling Land produce from family land
Sources of capital for Farming
Security for credit
Challenges to accessing of credit
Attitude towards agriculture
Youth Engagement and non-engagement in agriculture
Responses of Engagement in agriculture
Reasons for not engaging in agriculture.
The Population of Kenya is a youthful one comprising of about 78.31% aged below 34 years. Youth however, have been declining to engage in agriculture .Notable, is that agriculture is the main economic activity of Kenya. The sector has been recording a poor performance in the recent years and the continuous decline of youth engaging in agriculture may lead to a further setback. The effect will be a strain to the achievements of set government goal towards economic growth and development. Therefore, this study sought to assess challenges affecting youth engagement in agriculture in Kiambu County. Specifically, the study sought to find out; to what extent knowledge, land, attitude and credit affect youth’s engagement in agriculture. The study was conducted in Limuru Sub County because of the issue of high land fragmentation. The study adopted a survey research design that was cross sectional in nature. It targeted a population of 10,633 youth.The researcher used proportionate sampling to sample 300 youth from the peri-urban population of the constituency. A semi structured questionnaire was administered to both female and male research subjects. Thereafter, quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer software version 11.5. The data was presented in form of frequencies, means, pie chart bar graphs and standard deviation. Pearson’s r, correlation was used to determine the relationship between the variables whereas, qualitative data analysis was based on grounded theories and presented along emerging themes. The study concluded that lack of land and a poor attitude towards agriculture were the major causes of non-engagement in agriculture. The study further concluded that agricultural knowledge led to an interest in agriculture engagement. It also found out that in peri- urban areas, because of availability of casual jobs and business opportunities, capital for agriculture was raised through personal and group savings more than borrowing from financial institutions .The study recommended reviving farmer cooperatives, extensive training focusing on importance of youth engagement in agriculture for families and frequent farm visits to demonstrate new farming techniques for youth. Further it recommended formation of structured financial groups by youth.
Agriculture can be traced back to 10,000BC by estimating the date of the existence of the first farmer who was identified keeping domesticated animals and plants. Agriculture has evolved over the years just as the society has been changing. Initially, there were no farmers thus people depended on nature for food through hunting and gathering. During this time, the population was small, but with time it grew, and the number of farmers grew large. As of 2016, the population has grown to billions, and we have a few farmers who support the rest. The origin of agriculture is explained by many theories. First, agriculture was as a result of an initiative that started in a small area but spread in society. Secondly, the growing population pressured people to start agriculture. Thirdly, environmental changes that occurred before and after the glacial made it favorable to practice agriculture and lastly, the domesticated, human management and agricultural society coevolved. The transformation from hunting and gathering to agriculture is mostly attributed to high population (Zvelebil & Pluciennik, n.d.). The origin of agriculture has been explained by different proponents. Mainly it is as a result of increase in population that hindered the continuation of hunting and gathering that was initially practiced.
The world’s population grows by 78 million people yearly as stated in Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO, 2014). The statistics reveal that, by 2050, the global economy would need to cater for more than 9 billion people and ensure they are living a good life. However, (FAO; ILO,and UNESCO, 2009) highlighted that this is becoming a challenge since an increase in population has brought a challenge to farmers globally given that the demand for food is estimated to rise by 70 percent by the year 2050. FAO, (2014) estimates that, production of food will be required to go up by about 60 percent. FAO also stated that this may be impossible because of an ageing factor that affects food production as many young people are not practicing agriculture.
The average age of farmers in the United States of America (USA) and other developed countries borders on 60 years,(FAO, 2014). Such a trend raises a question on the future prospects of farming and increase in food productivity. Most of the youth do not have knowledge about agriculture. The ignorance about this is blamed on rural-urban migration and the increasing population. Lack of knowledge has made some youth to believe that milk comes from stores rather than from cows (Luckey, 2012).
In China, young people are moving to urban areas to secure a livelihood through employment. The average farmer in China was aged 57 years in the year 2010.China has an accelerated industrialization and urbanization growth that encourages the high rate of youth moving away from the rural area while living the aged behind. Studies have shown that about 60 percent of farm laborers migrated to urban areas in the year 2013 and most of them were less than 40 years old (Paisley, 2014).
In Africa, young people constitute a high and an increasing proportion of the population, with 70 percent of the total population in the age bracket of 30 years or below (Gyimah-Brempong and Kimenyi, 2013). However, there is evidence that many young people are not interested in pursuing agriculture, and this may affect the national and international goal of achieving economic growth through agricultural investments. That said, an ageing of the farming population is raising a concern. There is a trend of many young people reportedly choosing not to pursue livelihoods in the agriculture sector, especially as farmers (Leavy & Smith, 2010).
In South Africa, agriculture is significant in food production as well as employment with 65 percent of the population employed in this sector. Youth are the majority of the South African population, meaning that they have a significant role to play in the agricultural sector. However, young unskilled people are leaving rural to the urban and semi-urban areas leaving farming to the aged. The youth have observed that older persons in farming get low returns in the long run thus many farmers having little to show for their effort after many years of working in this sector (Mathivha, 2012).
Ethiopia has an emerging state of landlessness that is affecting the rural area particularly South of Ethiopia. The Ethiopian Government has given a constitutional right of accessing agricultural land for free to people living in the rural area since all land is state-owned and controlled. However, the government has been unable to fulfill this right to the youth, and most of them get a small share of land that limits them to practice agriculture. On the contrary, a majority of the elderly people own large holdings of land. This limits the likelihood of youth to engage in agricultural activities, and, they have been pushed to look for alternatives in employment (Bezu & Holden, 2014).
In Malawi, youth constitute to about half the population. A majority of them face food insecurity because of early marriages and the low level of education. This situation has resulted to a high degree of poverty among the youth. The problem worsens because of the challenges faced in accessing productive resources like land, extension services, improved farm inputs and of viable markets. The youth who engage in agriculture do so as the last resort. Because of the small number of people practicing agriculture, prices of food have gone high and it is not affordable for many young people to sustain. The Government of Malawi does not have programmes linking youth to agriculture and consequently this may have an impact on the already uninterested young people in the sector (Manyamba & Molokomme, 2014).
In Kenya, agriculture is a key economic sector, currently contributing 24 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP) directly, and 27 percent indirectly (Njengaetal., 2013). The Agricultural Sector Development Strategy (ASDS) of 2009-2020 revealed that the sector accounts for 65 percent of Kenya’s total exports. It also provides more than 18 percent of formal employment, 70 percent of informal jobs in the rural areas and provides a livelihood for close to 80 percent of the Kenyan population (RoK, 2009). Agriculture is a producer of not only food but raw material to manufacturing industries which in return is a source of non-farm income as well as a source of employment. The development of agriculture is, therefore, essential for poverty reduction, (Njeru &Gichimu, 2014).
According to Alila and Atieno (2006), there has been a declining performance of the agricultural sector in terms of its growth. The decline has been a concern to policymakers. Agriculture performance slowed considerably over the post-independence years from an average of 4.7 percent in the first decade to only below 2 percent in the 1990s. The turn down led to decline in levels of employment, food security and income levels .Notable, majority of the affected were farmers in rural areas .The effect was felt even more by women who constitute a majority of farmers. The decline generally led to a negative growth rate of -2.4 percent in the year 2000. The impact was felt in terms of food insecurity, inequality in income and unemployment.
Agriculture in Kenya is mainly practiced by older people of about 60 years of age. Particularly, young people constitute about 78.31percent of the total population, which are below the age of 34 years. However, there is a poor perception of agriculture by the youth in Kenya. Agriculture is perceived to be an occupation that is practiced by the uneducated, poor, rural or old people, (FAO, 2006). Njeru and Gichimu ( 2014), noted that most of the youth prefer white collar jobs despite the vast number of unemployed youth. This problem is exacerbated by migration from the rural to the urban areas instead of seeking employment alternatives in the agricultural sector especially value chain activities that would enhance food security and reduce the poverty level.
According to Njengaet al.(2013), the Kenyan education system does not adequately prepare youth for careers in agriculture. As a result, there is an adverse effect of youth perception on agriculture and, as a last resort affects their choice of occupation. They noted a drop in the number of students enrolling in agriculture-based courses in Kenyan universities apart from University of Nairobi. FAO (2010) suggests that youth are also hindered from practicing agriculture because they do not have access to land. In addition, Njeru and Gichimu, (2014) highlighted that the life expectancy has increased and therefore it is taking longer before the youth can inherit the land. Furthermore, because of lack of credit security and unemployment many youth cannot access facilities from financial institutions and thus a hindrance from participating in agriculture
Agriculture is the major economic activity in Kiambu County and is important to the population since 80 percent are involved in this sector. The sector therefore contributes a lot to the socio-economic well-being as stated in the County Integrated Development Plan (CIDP) of 2013(RoK, 2013). In the Kiambu Agricultural and Fishery Strategic plan (2012-2017)(GOK and Kiambu, 2013), the sector contributes 17.4 percent of the County's population income. It has a great impact on the socio-economic well-being of the population. A majority of the population in the county depends on the sub-sector for their livelihood, especially in employment either directly or indirectly. Approximately 1.28 million people are employed in the sector as stated in the CIDP (RoK, 2013).
Most of the land in the area is viable for agriculture. However, there has been a constraint because of the rapid expansion of Nairobi’s peri-urban following an increase in population. As a result, substantial residential and commercial needs have been high. The land has been converted to meet this demand hence causing a challenge of land (RoK, 2013). No data on peri urban Kiambu and youth involvement in agriculture exists and thus the need for this study.
Youth in Kenya are between the age of 18-35 years (KNBS, 2010). Statistics show that 78.31% of Kenyans are below 35 years. It also estimated that 64% of unemployed persons in Kenya are the youth. It is clear from this statistics that youth are among the poor. However even with the high rate of unemployment in the formal sector there is prevalence among the youth not to engage in agriculture. In the current policy guiding the agricultural sector in Kenya, ASDS; the policies are geared towards a commitment to involving the youth by making agriculture attractive to them (Njeru & Gichimu, 2014). In spite of the effort by government to make the agricultural sector attractive youth are choosing alternative forms of employment and career paths other than agriculture.
There is clearly poor perception about agriculture among youth. Agriculture is perceived as a dirty job, for the less educated and as a low income earner (FAO, 2006). If youth do not change their perception of agriculture, the productivity of food in this sector will continue decreasing. Consequently the government’s goal of an innovative, commercial oriented and modern agricultural sector in line with the Vision 2030 will not be achieved (RoK,2010). A great danger is as well posed to sustainable development of the country since agriculture is the mainstay of Kenyan economy and contributes significantly to job creation and food security. Notably, there has been little research that has been carried out to document youth’s views and aspirations toward farming (Muwi, 2012).
Thuo, (2010) conducted a research on community and social responses to land use transformations in the Nairobi rural-urban fringe, Karuri and noted that land in urban fringes was being converted to residential housing. However, he did not state how this affects the youth engaging in agriculture in the county. Noorani (2015) examined rural youth perceptions of farming but, the research did not look at the gender perspective of the attitudes the youth in Kiambu County have towards agriculture. The study was also limited to youth attitude towards agriculture, no other challenges were addressed. This study, therefore, seeks to assess the challenges faced by youth engaging in agriculture in peri-urban Kiambu County. By so doing it hopes to bring community based solutions in order to encourage youth’s participation in agriculture and as a result improve food insecurity, employment and promote economic development.
The objective of the study was to assess challenges faced by youth engaging in agriculture, in peri-urban Kiambu County of Kenya.
1. To determine the effect of agricultural knowledge on youth engagement in agriculture in Kiambu County.
2. To find out how access to land affects youth engagement in agriculture in Kiambu County.
3. To investigate how credit affects youth engagement in agriculture in Kiambu County.
4. To establish the attitude of youth towards engagement in agriculture in Kiambu county
This study used two theories as a guide to gather and analyze findings. The rational theory was pioneered in sociology by Homans (1961 as cited in Scott, 2000). The theory assumes that all social actions can be explained by basic individual action. Individuals are motivated by goals and wants. The goals and wants are expressed in form of preferences. However it is not always possible to achieve all the goals and wants, so a choice has to be made. In making choices people evaluate all alternatives and choose the one that has the best outcome. Rational action involves individuals engaging in consciously calculated strategies. Human behavior is shaped by reward and punishment. People will tend towards rewards and not punishment and behavior is strengthened by reward. Therefore, people will learn from past experiences and choose rewarding experiences. Usually, humans are motivated by a wide range of things like money, approval and recognition among others. However, approval is the most fundamental human goal.
Youth in Kiambu County have goals and preferences concerning careers and aspirations. For the goals and preferences to be achieved, they will be required to make certain choices while foregoing others. The final decision arrived at is chosen from a myriad of other options. Apparently, many youth are making a choice of not engaging in agriculture. According to this theory for a decision to be considered rational it must have been well calculated and should be most beneficial to the individual.
Most youth especially those that are educated are optimistic that they will get jobs in cities and that these jobs will be well-paying (Njonjo, 2010). This decision is reinforced by family approval, peers as well as the community who have always directly or indirectly encouraged the youth to study so that they get employment. This view, has been encouraged because most people who are employed are accorded respect from community members and it is a sign of status (Leavy and Smith, 2010).
Employment has received increased approval in many societies of Kenya and Africa in general. The contemporary trend is that society tends to have relatively higher respect for people who are employed, they gain respect from other youth and the community as a whole. This reaction is not similar for those who choose agriculture (Proctor & Lucchesi, 2012). Noorani, (2015) noted constraining factors like inadequate education advancement which is a requirement for one to gain meaningful employment in urban areas. Such factors compel them to remain in rural areas and engage in agriculture. Consequently, these constraints affect the goals and aspirations of the youth as explained by the rational choice theory
However, Hodgson (2012), views the rational choice as a general theory that is not context-specific; cannot explain historical and geographical social-economic features of a system. It does not take into consideration unique challenges or circumstances that cause inconsistent behavior and or influence preference. Critics have also explained that the theory tries to explain all kind of behavior. This study was be specific to youth who reside in Kiambu County.
The study also used the migration theory by Harris and Todaro (1970) explained the theory of migration by Everett S. Lee (1966). The theory is closely related to development studies and this study. It stipulates that the push and pull factor that causes young people to move from the rural area to urban areas. Some of the pull factors include increased educational opportunities and higher paying jobs in the cities, while push factors in the rural areas are for example lack of or restricted access to land, capital or knowledge. The migration theory proposes factors which influence decisions; those associated with the area of origin, factors linked with the area of destination, intervening obstacles and personal factors.
The area of origin is in our context the rural area of Kiambu where agriculture is the main source of livelihood. This study will pay attention to the push factors in the place of origin and pull factors in the place of destination. Adequate agricultural knowledge, access to land, availability of capital and positive attitude would be termed as pull factors while inaccessibility of land, low income from agriculture would be termed as push factors. Intervening factors that may hinder the youth from engaging in agriculture such lack of agricultural knowledge influence by peers or lack of approval by parents as well as personal factors affect the decision to either migrate or not. This is especially with regards to individual attitude towards agriculture which varies from person to person (Noorani, 2015). The theory cannot therefore quantify which intervening factors affect the youth most and therefore causing them to move from the point of origin to another, destination. The study attempted to answer this question by limiting itself to youth who reside in Kiambu County.
Limuru sub county is one of the five sub counties of Kiambu .It was purposively selected because of the high conversion of agricultural land to residential plots (ASDP,2013). The sub county has a population of 131,131(KNBS, 2009).It covers 281.8 square kilometers and constitutes five county assembly wards as follows; Bibirioni, Limuru Central, Limuru East, Ndeiya and Ngecha Tigoni. The sub county has rich soils and climate that favours agriculture. However there has been a decline in cash crop farming and a rise in subsistence farming as a result of the increase in population and a decline in land sizes. Generally, there is a high population growth rate in Kiambu County which is at 2.81 per cent. This is because many people working in Nairobi city prefer to live in the less congested areas of the County. Due to the high population from the towns, real estate business is booming causing land fragmentation. As a result, agricultural land has become uneconomical thus a decline in agriculture which is the main economic activity in the area (Mureti, 2012). According to KNBS (2010), it is highlighted that youth are the majority in the county and they may be the most affected.
The study was carried out amongst youth in Kiambu County. The target population of youth in relation to the households in the region was 10,633 youth from Limuru Constituency. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design; descriptive design can be categorized as observational or survey studies. This design is concerned with describing the characteristics or behavior of a particular subject. The research targeted youth between the age of 18 and 35 years. Only youth resident from the sub county were included. Youth that live in peri-urban areas were selected and only those who consent to participate in the study were included. It targeted a sample of 300 youth being the units of analysis. The sample size was calculated following adoption of the formula derived from(Watson, 2001). The formula is as below ;
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
n = sample size required
N = number of people in the population
P = estimated variance in population, as a decimal: (0.3)
A = Precision desired, expressed as a decimal (i.e.) 0.05 for 5%)
Z = 95% confidence level, 1.6449
R = Estimated Response rate, as a decimal (0.7 for 70%)
Proportionate sampling was used to obtain the sample from the five wards of Limuru constituency, namely; Ndeiya, Bibirioni, Limuru Central, Limuru East and Ngecha Tigoni. An equal representative number of youth were sampled from each ward. Key informant interviews were purposively selected from area. Data collection was sought from primary sources. A mixed method approach was incorporated with both quantitative and qualitative methods. A semi structure questionnaire and an interview guide were developed to aid in data collection. The interview guide was open ended and the interviews were recorded with the permission from the interviewee. In cases where recording was prohibited, notes were taken.
As for the data analysis, quantitative data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) computer software version 11.5. The data was descriptive in nature and it was presented in form of frequencies, means, pie chart bar graphs and standard deviation. Further, the relationship between youth engagement in agriculture with reference to knowledge, land, credit and attitude was determined using Pearson’s r, correlation. Qualitative data obtained from open ended questions and key informant interviews were coded in line with emerging themes from the research. The themes were analyzed in line with the grounded theories and presented along emerging themes.
The research instruments were presented to the supervisors for validation of content and guidance sought on ways of enhancing the instruments. The researcher conducted a pilot study to pretest the research tools, few changes were made on both the questionnaire and the interview guide. A revision of some questions and new ones were included while others omitted from the initial questionnaire and the interview guide. Additionally, to ensure consistency of the results, the researcher ran a reliability test using Cronbach’s alpha, the coefficient was 0.996. According to Tavakol and Dennick, (2011) an instrument with an alpha of 0.7 or more is considered reliable.
Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 14 Seiten
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 109 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 17 Seiten
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 7 Seiten
Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 24 Seiten
Praktikumsbericht / -arbeit, 55 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 21 Seiten
Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 14 Seiten
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 109 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 17 Seiten
Wissenschaftlicher Aufsatz, 7 Seiten
Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 24 Seiten
Praktikumsbericht / -arbeit, 55 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 21 Seiten
Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veröffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bücher spezialisiert. Der GRIN Verlag steht damit als erstes Unternehmen für User Generated Quality Content. Die Verlagsseiten GRIN.com, Hausarbeiten.de und Diplomarbeiten24 bieten für Hochschullehrer, Absolventen und Studenten die ideale Plattform, wissenschaftliche Texte wie Hausarbeiten, Referate, Bachelorarbeiten, Masterarbeiten, Diplomarbeiten, Dissertationen und wissenschaftliche Aufsätze einem breiten Publikum zu präsentieren.
Kostenfreie Veröffentlichung: Hausarbeit, Bachelorarbeit, Diplomarbeit, Dissertation, Masterarbeit, Interpretation oder Referat jetzt veröffentlichen!