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42 Seiten, Note: 2'1
LIST OF TABLES
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Delimitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Indicators to climate change
2.2 The vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change
2.3 Adaptation strategies to climate change
2.4 Measures of reducing vulnerability and increasing farmers’ adaptive capacity
2.5 Summary of literature review
CHAPTER THREE METHOD AND PROCEDURES
3.1 Research design
3.2 Area of the study
3.3 Population of the study
3.5 Sampling technique
3.6 Instrument for data collection
3.6.1 Validation of instrument
3.6.2 Reliability of the instrument
3.7 Procedure for data collection
3.8 Method of data analysis
CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Presentation of results
4.2 Discussion of findings
CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of the study
5.4 Suggestions for further research
Table 1. Independent t-test analysis to determine whether there is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female farmers on the indicators determining the vulnerability to climate change
Table 2. Independent t-test analysis to determine the difference in the mean rating of male and female farmers on level of vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change by the farming communities in Sardauna
Table 3. Independent t-test analysis to determine the strategies adapted by farmers in coping with the adaptability to climate change in Sardauna
Table 4. Independent t-test analysis to determine the significant difference in the mean rating of male and female farmers on the measures that will reduce the effect of climate change by the farming communities in Sardauna
This study focused on the assessment of the vulnerability and adaptability to climate change by farming communities in Sardauna Local Government Area of Taraba State. Four research questions were developed in line with the purpose of the study, and four correspondent hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Relevant literatures were reviewed to cover the variables under investigation. The population of the study was 100 registered farmers in the local government area. Purposive sampling technique was used to select the population from 11 political wards of Sardauna. Data for the study were obtained by the use of a questionnaire at 0.05 level of significance and 99 degree of freedom. From the analysis, it was found that flood, desertification, land degradation, cessation of rain and drought are the major indicators of climate change in Nigeria. Insufficient extension services, lack of farmers enlightenment, negligence of government, religious/traditional believes of farmers and low farmers income are found to be major reasons the farming communities are highly vulnerable to climate change. Based on the above findings, conclusion, recommendations and suggestions for further studies were made.
Climate change is recognized as one of the greatest challenges of our time. It causes a huge threat to all aspects of human development (Mitchel, 2006). Climate change is said to occur when there is a statistically significant variation in either the mean state of the climate or in its variability, persisting for an extended period typically for decades or longer (Nwafor, 2006). It may be caused by natural process or by anthropogenic causes especially human activities that load the atmosphere with carbondioxide (C02) and other green house gases (Ekpoh, 2002).
Climate change is much more than a warming trend. Its impacts are enormous and the consequences far-reaching. Apart from global increase in temperature (global warming) some of the current and projected manifestations of climate change include; a rise in sea level, shifting of global climate zones retreating of alpine, glaciers an increased incidence and severity of extreme weather event, changes in quality duration and pattern of precipitation and flooding. It can also result in significant loss of food security, natural disasters, vanishing coastlines, human displacements, natural resources depletion, loss of animals, natural resources depletion, scarcity of safe water, pests management challenge, diseases and other health problems, loss of cultural practices and traditional ways of life economic losses and energy crises among others. The climate nature of Nigerian agriculture makes it very vulnerable to climate change (Parry, 1999).
Vulnerability is defined as the ability or inability of individuals or social groupings to respond to, in the sense of cope with recover from or adapt to, any external stress placed on their livelihoods and wellbeing. Their approach focuses on existing “wounds” (or prior damage), which might limit capacity to respond to stresses and are independent of future threats (Kelly &Adger, 2000).
Impact of climate change specific to Nigerian agriculture include; temperature increase droughts desertification, flood, several rise and salt water intrusion affecting coastal areas changes in quantity, length and pattern of rainfall (uncertain onset and cessation of rains). Land degradation decreases volume of streams and rivers affecting water availability increase storms and other extreme climate events, poverty and migration, dislocation of farming families and general decrease in agricultural production.
While climate change is a global problem, studies have shown that some countries or communities are more vulnerable to climate change than others intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC, 2007). Tropical countries for instance are likely to experience more incidence of tropical storms caused by climate change. Also countries with significant length of coastline will be more threatened by sea-level rises induced by climate change countries and communities with poorly developed infrastructure inefficient public health systems and/or low levels of emergency preparedness are more vulnerable. The uses are compounded if such countries or communities have economics and livelihood that are climate dependent or sensitive (Kelly &Adger, 2007).
It has been determined that Nigeria and most other sub-saharan African countries, are highly vulnerable to climate change particularly, in the areas of agriculture, land use, energy, biodiversity, health and water resources (Devereux & Edward, 2004).
In the face of risk posed by climate change, global communities nations and local communities are undertaking actions along two primary tracks. The first is mitigation, the process of preventing climate change or reducing its impacts, mainly through reducing green house gas emission and enhancing their sinks, the second adaptation – the process of adjusting in response to actual or anticipated climate change (Okoye, 2008).
Adaptation primarily aims at moderating the adverse effects of unavoided climate change through a wide range of actions that are targeted at the vulnerable system (Fussei& Klein, 2006). It may also include taking actions to seize new opportunities brought about by climate change (Bethend, 2007; Nzebule 2008 and IPCC, 1995). The increasing interest in adaptation to climate change is reflected in the evolution of the concept theory and practice of climate change vulnerability assessment (Fussel and Klein, 2006).
According to these authors, effective adaptation to climate change is contingent on the availability of two important pre-requisite; information on what to adapt to and how to adapt and resources to implement the adaptation measures.
Vulnerability assessment do not requires detailed climate information generated by models (which is not available for many parts of the world) and they do not requires us to wait until the science of climate “prediction” are more developed. adaptation policies may therefore, be developed despite the uncertainties inherent in the science of climate change; while a detailed knowledge of likely or potential future climate would be desirable, lack of it cannot be an impediment to increasing the general resistance of communities to the types of threats that they may be expected to face in the future (Adger, 1994).
Vulnerability to climate change may be conceptualized in biophysical or social terms. The biophysical concept view vulnerability in terms of the amount of (particular climate-related event or hazard (Jones & Boar, 2003). This work adopts the social vulnerability concept which places emphasis on the capacity of individuals and social groupings to respond to;
That is, to cope with, cover from or adapt to any external stress placed on their livelihoods and wellbeing. The assumption is that the vulnerability of any individual, social group, community or agricultural system to natural hazard is determined primarily by their current state and capacities to respond to a particular hazard (Speranza, 2010). Therefore addressing the current vulnerability will reduce the effect in the future and increase adaptation (Bisong, 2001).
Climate change threatens all countries with the developing countries the most vulnerable. Estimates are that the developing world would bear some 80% of the cost of damage caused by the changing climate. Sardaunalocal government is not exceptional as it is already facing serious food security challenge which could be attributed majorly to climate change. In Sardauna local government area of Taraba State, the threat of climate change is real. There has been gradual reduction in the annual rainfall, while increase variability in temporal and spatial patterns of rainfall has also been noticed. The day time temperature appears to be on the increase while strange skin disease are said to be on the rise (Nyanganji, 2000).
The author further observed that there is increase coastal flooding especially in the valley, which comes with serious problems of farm destruction displacement of settlements and farm-land disease outbreak among others. Cases of crop failure are on the increase due majorly to inability of farmers to predict correctly as before, oneset and cessation of rains. Due to the changing climate the area has also witnessed increased prevalence of crops and animals diseases increase soil erosion and land degradation, changes in the type of crops and animals raised among others. These climate changes have conspired with other factors to reduce the woes of agriculture in the local government.
The major purpose of this study is assessment of the vulnerability and adaptability to climate change by farming communities in Sardauna local government area of Taraba State. Specifically, the study is designed to;
1. Identify the major indicators of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change by farming communities in Sardauna local government area of Taraba State.
2. Determine the level of vulnerability to climate change by the farming communities.
3. Determine the various climate change adaptation strategies used by farmers in the communities.
4. Determine measures that will reduce vulnerability and increase adaptive capacity to farming communities in Sardauna local government.
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;
1. What are the major indicators determining the vulnerability and adaptability to climate change by farming communities in Sardaunalocal government area of Taraba state?
2. What are the level of vulnerability to climate change by the farming communities in Sardauna local government area of Taraba state?
3. What are the various climate change adaptation strategies used by farmers in the communities?
4. What are the measures that will reduce vulnerability and increase adaptability to climate change by farmers in Sardauna local government?
1. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of male and female farmers on the indicators of the vulnerability to climate change by the farming communities.
2. There is no significant difference in the mean rating of male and female farmers on level of vulnerability to climate change by the farming communities.
3. There is no significant difference in the mean rating of male and female farmers on strategies adapted by farmers in coping with the adaptability to climate change in their areas.
4. There is no significant difference in the mean rating of male and female farmers on the measures that will reduce the effect of climate change to the farming communities in Sardauna local government area.
This study is expected to make a significant contributions to knowledge and scholarship in the field of agricultural environment and development studies. Specifically, it shall enrich the information base available on climate change vulnerabilities in Sardauna local government area of Taraba state. The work is envisaged to serve as a useful foundation upon which future researchers are based.
The threat from climate change is real and frightening; practically no aspect of human life is spread. By creating environmental awareness, by encouraging the development of the right attitudes towards the environmentally friend practices and mitigation/adaptation measures by farmers and all mankind recommended by this research, it is hoped that the challenge will not only be ameliorated but the doom day permanently shifted.
This research will help farmers in Sardauna local government area of Taraba State to know the major indicators of climate change and how they can cope with the threats of the climate change as well as adapt to the effect in their respective farming communities. The study will also help to enlighten farmers on the consequences of climate change and how they can survive in their respective communities.
The scope of the work is focused primarily on the assessment of vulnerability and adaptation to climate change by farming communities in Sardauna local government area of Taraba state.
In this study, serious effort was made to identify and examine the major indicators of vulnerability and adaptation. The study also examined current coping strategies as well as adaptive capacity of the farming communities to climate variability and change.
The following terms were used in the study as defined below:
1. Climate change: Climate change is a significant and lasting change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns over periods ranging from decades to millions of years. It may be change in overage weather conditions, or in the distribution of weather around the average condition (i.e. more or fewer extreme weather events).
2. Vulnerability:Can be defined as the extent to which climate change may damage or harm a system. It is also the ability of individual or grouping to respond to any external stress placed on their livelihood.
3. Adaptability:Refers to the degree to which adjustment are possible in practices, processes or structures of systems to projected or actual change of climate.
4. Assessment:Is an opinion or judgement about the nature or quality of a system or object.
The related literature is reviewed under the following sub-headings;
i. Indicators to climate change
ii. The vulnerability and adaptive capacity to climate change
iii. Adaptation strategies to climate change
iv. Measures of reducing vulnerability and increasing farmers’ adaptive capacity
v. Summary of literature review
Climate change can be notice by farmers if there is a change from the normal natural condition. Edward (2004) argued that farmers should observe the following uncertainties in assessing climate change as the indicators;
iii. Rise in sea level
iv. Uncertain onset and cessation of rains
v. Land degradation
vi. Decrease volume of streams and rivers affecting water availability
Desertification: Is the gradual destruction or removal; of the vegetation leading to poor growth of crops and reduction or total elimination of livestock. Desertification can set in as a result of some harmful, farming practices such as indiscriminate bush burning, overgrazing, using of harmful chemicals and indiscriminate felling of trees (deforestation) (Kates, 2000). Desert could also mean a large area of land that has very little water and very few plant growing on it. Many deserts are covered by sand.
Edward (2004) revealed that 60% of the land in north eastern Nigeria is deserts and the desert encroachment is fast approaching to the other part of the country. Desert has set in on areas like Sokoto, Katsina, Kebbi, Borno, Zamfara, and part of Kano and Adamawa among others (Nyanganji and Aminu, 2002). Climate change indicator which serve as alarm to farmers are numerous but desertification is the measure indicator in the sense that it can easily be noticed by both educated and the illiterate. Continuous cropping, mixed cropping and chemical fertilizer utilization if not properly used and managed can lead to desertification. Desertification can also lead to drastic reduction in the water level, poor crop yield, destruction of the vegetation, fall in sea level, reduction in wildlife/livestock, migration, dislocation of farming families and general decrease in agricultural production (Edward, 2004).
Flood: A large amount of water covering an area that is usually dry. Flood can also be seen as a large amount of water that is covering an area of land that is dry initially. Flood is an indicator of climate change. Flood poses serious risk to ecosystem, agro-ecological zones, their life-support functions and consequently food security (Parry 1999). Flood leads to waterlog condition which block the spore spaces, disrupt plant transpiration increase the effect of pest and diseases in the affected area.
Flood is an abnormal phenomenon that is becoming a very serious threat to sub-saharan Africa especially Nigeria. Research has shown that if adequate measure are not taken by Nigerian government to mitigate the flood threat by enlighten the farmers and other concern individual when necessary measure to mitigate or control flood, the future damage will be disastrous. Hence it will destroy vegetation, erode nutrients, destroy livestock and displace a lot of farmers (Edward 2000).
Rise in sea level: This indicate the increase in the volume of water in the sea leading to flood and erosion. When there is global warming the first indicator is the melting of ice at the coastal region which in turn increase the water volume. Extreme sun will lead to high temperature which in turn melt the ice at the coast region leading to the increase or rise in the volume of water in the sea. The major effect or impact of this phenomenon is flooding and erosion which is a very dangerous phenomenon to farmers and other individuals in both rural and urban areas. Research has shown that there has been a tremendous increase or rise in the sea level at the Atlantic and pacific ocean from the year 2002 – 2006 (Leichenko, 2008).
Uncertain cessation of rain: This indicates the variation of rainfall in an area from time to time. It is also a very important indicator of climate change. This occurs when then variation between the wet season and the dry season becomes unpredictable by the farmers due to uncertainty of changes that can occur in the area. Areas that used to observed long season of rainfall are now experiencing short seasonof rainfall due to the rapid changes of the weather and climatic condition of such areas. When the amount of rain expected per annum has reduce then climate change has said to occur in that area (Parry, 1999).
Land degradation:This is the gradual removal of the land cover and rapid reduction of the macro and micro nutrients in the soil posing a very serious threats to crops/plants and animals. The major indicator to climate change is land degradation as it is obvious for both learned farmers and illiterate farmers to notify that something strengths is happening.
However Klein (2006), on his view see indicators to climate change as those factors that really manifest to farmers whose impact is always negative as drought, desertification, drastic reduction in crop yield, reduction in the volume of streams and rivers and land degradation among others. Okoye (2008) ascribe indicators to climate change to land degradation, increase in temperature, increase in seas level, flood, extreme sunlight and desertification among others.
Indicators to climate change include drought, flood, desertification, increase in sea level, rise in salt water intrusion, changing quantity length and patterns of rainfall, increase storms and other extreme climate events, poverty and migration dislocation of farming families and general decrease in agricultural production (Fussel and Klein, 2006).
In the tropics and subtropics, where some crops are near their maximum temperature tolerance and where dry land, non-irrigated agriculture dominates yields are likely to decrease for even small changes in climate especially in Africa where decrease in overall agricultural productivity of up to thirty percent are projected during the next century are major indicators to climate change (IPCC, 2000).
Ekpoh (2002) ascribe climate change indicators to rise in sea level, shifting of global climatic zones, retreating of alpine glaciers, an increased incidence and severity of extreme weather events, changes in the quality, duration and pattern of precipitation leading to increased drought, desertification and flooding. It can also result in a significant loss of food security, natural disasters, vanishing coastlines, human displacement, natural resources depletion, scarcity of safe water, animal migration, pests management challenge, diseases and other health problems, loss of cultural practices and traditional ways of life, economic losses and energy crises among others.
However, indicators to climate change as quoted by many authors include; flood, desertification, drought, land degradation, temperature increase, variation in rains, reduction in crop yield, sea level rise, salt water intrusion, decrease volume of streams/rivers, increase storms and other extreme climate events, poverty, migration and reduction in agricultural production.
According to Kates (2000) most effort address climate change to date have focused on mitigation, or preventive action to limit green house gasses rather than adaptation. A recent review of the current state of climate change research and analysis in India by Kandlikar and Speranza (2000) provides a concrete example. These authors found that while India is advanced in terms of climate change research and analysis with respect to other developing countries adaptation issues have yet to come to the fore-front.
This is the issue in Nigeria as analyzed by Ekpoh (2000) Nigerian government is not paying adequate attention to climate change especially on the adaptive strategies which pose a serious threat to farmers in the rural areas. Of particular relevance in developing countries context is the fact that economic and social changes have been making traditional adjustment less relevant, and these changes have generally not been accompanied by increase in government’s capacity to stimulate and assist in adjustment. As one author argues vulnerability in the developing world is actually growing because reasonably successful traditional adjustments are no longer being implemented and societal organized adjustment are not yet available (Kates, 2000).
Adaptation to climate is the process through which people reduce the adverse effects of climate on their health and wellbeing and take advantages of the opportunities that climatic environment provides (Burton as cited in Smith &Watson, 1996).
Adaptation involves adjustment to enhance the viability of social and economic activities and to reduce their vulnerability to climate, including its current variability and extreme events as well as longer – term climate change (Smith as cited in Smith & Watson, 1996).
The term adaptation means any adjustment, whether passive, reactive or anticipatory, that is proposed as a means for ameliorating the anticipated adverse consequences associated with climate change (Stakhir 1993, quoted in Smith, 2000).
Adaptation to climate change includes all adjustments in behavior or economic structure that reduce the vulnerability of society to changes in the climate system (Smith et al, 1996 quoted in Smith et al, 2000) and adaptability refers to the degree to which adjustments are possible in practices. Processes or structures of systems ro projected or actual changes of climate. Adaptation can be spontaneous or planned, and can be carried out in response to or in anticipation of change in conditions (Watson et al., 1996, quoted in Smith et al, 2000.
Smith (2000) also discussed various typologies and distinctions related to the process of adaptation which appear in the literature. For example, according to some of the typologies considered adaptation can be planned or spontaneous, passive, reactive, or anticipatory etc. Kelly and Adger (2000) define vulnerability as “the ability or inability of individuals or social groupings to respond to in the sense of cope with recover from or adapt to, any external stress placed on their livelihoods and well-being their approach focuses on existing wounds” (prior damage), which might limit capacity to respond to stresses and are independent of future threats. Vulnerability is the characteristics of a person or group in terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist and recover from the impact of a natural hazard. The same author’s argue that vulnerability is a measure of a person or group exposure to the effects of a natural hazard, including the degrees to which they can recover from the impact of that event.
The intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC) in its second assessment report defined vulnerability as the extent to which climate change may damage or harm a system. It adds that vulnerability depends not only on a systems’ sensitivity, but also on its ability to adapt to new climatic condition (Watson, 1996). Vulnerability and adaptation capacity have implications for assessments of vulnerability. Some of the major factors that make farming communities more vulnerable to climate change include; insufficient extension services, lack of enlightenment from the farmers, negligence of government, religion/traditional belief of the farmers and non-challant farmers’ attitude; (Kate, 2000).
In one case, vulnerability depends on the adaptation that has taken place in the other, vulnerability is defined in terms of capacity to adapt, and capacity to respond to stress is a starting point for impact analysis.
The propensity of system (e.g. socio-economic systems) to adapt is influenced by certain system characteristics that have been called “determinants to adaptation” in the literature. These include terms such as “sensitivity” vulnerability resilience, susceptibility and adaptive capacity among others. The occurrence as well as the nature of adaptations are influenced by these. The same authors argue that sensitivity, vulnerability and adaptability capture the broad concepts.
The definitions of terms that describe system characteristics at are relevant for adaptation include the following;
Sensitivity – degree to which a system is affected by or responsive to climate stimuli
Vulnerability – degree to which a system is susceptible to injury, damage or harm
Impact potential – degree to which a system is susceptible to climate stimuli
Resilience – degree to which a system rebounds, recoups or recovers from a stimulus.
Responsiveness – degree to which a system reacts to stimulus
Adaptive capacity – the potential or capacity of a system to adapt to (to alter to better suit) climatic stimuli.
Adaptability – the ability, competency or capacity of a system to adapt to (to alter to better suit) climatic stimuli (IPCC, 2001).
Adaptation is often the result of interactions between climatic and other factors. Adaptation vary not only with respect to their climatic stimuli but also with respect to other, non-climate conditions, sometimes called intervening conditions which serve to influence the sensitivity of systems and the nature of their adjustments. For example a series of droughts may have similar impacts on crop yields in two regions, but differing economic and institutional arrangements in the two regional may well result in quite different impacts on farmers and hence in quite different adaptive responses, but in the short and long term (Smith et al, 2000).
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