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91 Seiten, Note: 2
List of Figures and List of Photoplates
Abbreviations and Signs
The study area in general
Climate and Temperature
Historical account of Bijapur
Past work in India
Major floristic study in Karnataka
Major floristic study in Bijapur
Enumeration of species
We wish to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to The Honorable Vice Chancellor, Prof. Meena Chandavarkar, Prof. S. A. Kazi Registrar and Dr. Srinath Rao Professor of Botany and Registrar Evaluation and Dr. S.B. Madagi, Dean Faculty of Science of Karnataka State Women’s University, Bijapur for their encouragement and inspirations.
Co-ordinator Dr. Babu R.L. and teaching faculty Dr. Firdose K.R. Kolar, Dr. Ajayan K.V. and Miss. Chaitra Pandhari for their advice and co-operation throughout the study period. My family especially my mother, brother, sister, friends and students Miss. Bharati Mirji, Miss. Savita Rachagond, Miss. Lata Egappagol for their support and for putting up with me for all this time.
Last but not least we are thankful to all my well-wishers.
Kambhar Sidanand Vitthal
Fig. 1. Map of Karnataka showing location of Bijapur district and schematic map of Karnataka State Women’s University, Torvi Campus, Bijapur
Fig. 2. Rainfall data of Bijapur district (2008-2012)
Fig. 3. Top ten families distribution of species.
Fig. 4. Habitwise distribution of species.
1. Blepharis repens (Vahl) Roth
2. Lepidagathis cristata Willd.
3. Achyranthes aspera L.
4. Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult.
5. Digera muricata L.
6. Gomphrena celosioides Mart.
7. Trichurus monsoniae (L.f.) Townsend
8. Catharanthus pusilla (Murr.) G. Don.
1. Aristolochia bracteolata Lam.
2. Asclepias curassvica L.
3. Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br.
4. Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata (Wall.) Grav. & Mayur
5. Pergularia pallida (Forssk.) Chiov.
6. Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr.
7. Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philip.
8. Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq.
1. Dicoma tomemtosa Cass.
2. Echinops echinatus Roxb.
3. Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.
4. Glossocardia bosavallea (L.f.) DC.
5. Lagascea mollis Cav.
6. Pentanema indicum (L.) Ling.
7. Xanthium indicum Koen.
8. Balanites aegyptica (L.) Del. (Flowering)
1. Balanites aegyptica (L.) Del. (Fruiting)
2. Tecoma stans (L.) H. B. & K.
3. Heliotropium indicum L.
4. Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R. Br.
5. Cassia absus L.
6. Cassia auriculata L.
7. Cassia mimosoides L.
8. Parkinsonia aculeata L.
1. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer & Heyne
2. Tamarindus indica L.
3. Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edg.
4. Capparis divaricata Lam.
5. Convolvulus arvensis L.
6. Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.
7. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sw.
8. Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker.-Gawl.
1. Xenostegia tridenta (L.) Austin & Staples
2. Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt
3. Acalypha indica L.
4. Chrozophora rottleri (Geiseler) A. Juss. ex Spreng.
5. Croton bonplandianus Baill.
6. Euphorbia hirta L.
7. Kirganelia reticulata (Poir.) Baill.
8. Phyllanthus maderapatensis L.
1. Clitoria ternetea L. var. ternatea
2. Crotalaria hebecarpa (DC.) Rudd.
3. Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.
4. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Steud.
5. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre.
6. Stylosanthes fruticosa (Retz.) Alst.
7. Zornia gibbosa Span.
8. Enicostema axillare (Lam.) Raynal
1. Salvia aegyptica L.
2. Malvastrum coromandelianum (L.) Garcke
3. Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. ex Hooks.f. & Thoms.
4. Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC.
5. Argemone mexicana L.
6. Sesamum laciniatum Klein. ex Willd.
7. Cryptolepis buchananii R.Br. ex Roem. & Schult.
8. Cynodon dactylon Pers.
1. Dactylenium aegypticum (L.) Willd.
2. Heteropogon contortus Roem. & Schult.
3. Polygala erioptera DC.
4. Scoparia dulcis L.
5. Solanum nigrum L.
6. Waltheria indica L.
7. Fagonia indica Burm.f.
8. Tribulus terrestris L.
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The density and distribution of flowering plants diverge in different habitats and also in different countries. The entire world has 12 Megadiversity countries: Australia, Brazil, China, Clumbia, Eucador, India, Indonesia, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mexico, Peru and Zaire which holds together about 70 percent of its total flowering plants diversity (Mc Neely et al.,1990).
India is a vast country with a rich in diversity of biotic components. This rich biodiversity is mainly due to a diverse physical environment, latitude, longitude, geology and climate. The total geographical area of India is about 329 million ha and its coastline stretches to over 7,000 km. Almost all shades of climate from hot arid in That desert to arctic in the Himalaya with all intermediate gradations occur here. India can be divided into eight distinct-floristic-regions, namely, the western Himalayas, the eastern Himalayas, Assam, the Indus plain, the Ganga plain, the Deccan, Malabar and the Andamans (Research Reference and Training Division, 2010).
There is a global concern for assessing the status of living organisms belonging to various kingdoms and conserving biodiversity. All life is based on the genetic code: all forms have life evolved by natural selection and all life is connected. There is no true estimate of the total number of species in the world, although the sum of recorded number exceeds 1.7 million. As plants are the main solar energy converters and act as providers of food, oxygen and a host of most important products, it is essential to estimate their availability and occurrence. As continued research is yielding plant compounds with newer uses, it is all the more essential to prepare comprehensive databases. The main requirements for an inventory are correct identification, nomenclature, description and its environmental status.
The rainfall varies from about 100 in Thar Desert to over 5000 mm at Mawsmai in Meghalaya. Though the area of the country is only 2.4 percent of the world landmass, yet it supports over 11 percent of all known species of plants (Singh et al., 2001). As stated that, India is one of the 12 centres of mega-diversity in the world and encompass of 17,500 flowering plant species. It exhibits a wealth of complex and diverse ecosystems with a great deal of variation (Venu, 1998, Kambhar, 2012). It accounts for 8% of the global biodiversity with only 2.4% of the total land area in the world (Singh et al., 2011).
We know that plants are one of the major components of biodiversity. Thus, thorough investigation of our flora has become an urgent necessity not only an essential resource for human well-being and ecological importance of biodiversity but also of accelerated genetic erosion occurring as consequence of destruction of the forest and other habitat (Manilal, 1998; Sumeet et al., 2010; Talukdar & Talukdar, 2012). The present need of the hour is sustainable use of biodiversity. Inventory is a continuous process of searching and re-examining the earlier findings. Inventory only will identify the key issues of management for these precious resources that are not fixed and will certainly vary with time and space (Yadav & Sardesai, 2000).
For this reason, detail information of the known local plant species from surrounding area is essential. The information is important as it allows us to prevent or avoid the prospective chances of biodiversity loss and to plan future policy for the protection of our environment. The present study was undertaken for the following objectives;
- Survey, collection, identification and inventorisation of the flowering plants.
- To find out the rare, endangered, endemic and medicinal plants.
Bijapur, “the land of five rivers and the domain of different cultures” is an ancient city. The city established in the 10th and 11th centuries by the Chalukya’s of Kalyani was known as Vijayapura (City of victory). Bijapur was the biggest district place of the state with 11 taluks, but the partition of the district in 1997 made it to lose that title. Now it consists of five taluks viz. Basavan Bagevadi, Bijapur, Indi, Muddebihal and Sindagi. It has an area of 10,541sq.km and consists 5.49 percent of Karnataka state’s total area. Geographically district doesn’t have any hills or mountains.
The whole district consists of plain land. The lands can be broadly divided into three zones: the northern belt consisting of the northern parts of Bijapur taluks of Indi and Sindagi; the central belt consisting of Bijapur city; the southern belt consisting of the rich alluvial plains of the Krishna parted from the central belt by a stretch of barren trap. The district is bounded by Solapur district on the North and Sangli on the North-West, by the district of Belgaum on the West, Bagalkot on the South, Gulbarga on the East and by Raichur on the South-East. Thus, it is a land-locked district on the northern boundary of Karnataka.
The present study area i.e. The Karnataka State Women’s University has been set up with a goal to empower women through education and training particularly to rural and backward area of Karnataka state. It is one of the seven women’s university in the country. The KSWU, Bijapur has 281 acres of land premises at Jnanashakti campus, Torvi, Bijapur (Fig. 1). There are about 5500 saplings have been planted in the campus area, the saplings such as Azadirachta indica, Dalbergia sisso have largely planted in and around the buildings and roads.
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The climate of Bijapur district is generally dry and healthy. In summer, especially in April and May it is too hot; at that time the temperature lays between 40 degree Celsius to 42 degree Celsius. In winter season, from November to January the temperature is between 15 degree Celsius to 20 degree Celsius. Usually the district has dry weather, so the humidity varies from 10% to 30%.
The district has 34 rain gauge stations. The average annual rainfall for the whole district is 552.8 mm (Fig. 2), with 37.2 rainy days. The monsoon generally reaches the district by June and lasts till October. Though the total rainfall is not high, the district benefits both from the south-west and the north-east monsoons. The annual rainfall varies from place to place within the district.
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Fig. 2. Rainfall data of Bijapur district (2008-2012)
(Source: Indian meterological department)
The district has two types of soil. First one is deep black soil (or yeari bhoomi), which is good for the crops like jawar, wheat, pulses, sunflower, etc. The major portion of the district consists of this kind of soil which has a great moisture-holding capacity. Second one is red soil (or masari bhoomi) which is generally poor, good for irrigation and horticulture.
The area is drained by Krishna river, which is the most important river of the district. It has a course about 125 miles in the district. A dam is built across the river at Alamatti. On the north, Bhima river drains the northern strip for about 20 miles. It overflows in the rainy season and spreads over a wider area, which is thereby rendered extremely fertile. In the centre the land is drained by Doni river. The water of this river is slightly salty, therefore it is not so useful for agriculture.
In India, notable systematic botanical investigation was started by Van Reede (1678-1683) who published work on Indian plants in his monumental work ‘ Hortus Indicus Malabaricus’. Major contributions in the southern region of Peninsular India were made by Louis Theodore Leschenault, W. Roxburgh and Robert Wight. Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis (1838-1853) and Illustration of Indian Botany (1840) is the most important contributions made by Wight. Together with Arnott he published Prodromus Florae Peninsulae Indiae Orientalis (1834) in which several new taxa were described.
The Flora Sylvatica of South India (1869-1874) and Icones Plantarum Indiae Orientalis (1868-1874) were contributed by Beddome who extensively collected the plants from Madras presidency and Eastern Ghats. Further, Flora of British India made by Hooker et al. (1872-1897) exhibited floristic wealth of British India in seven volumes. Subsequently, Cooke (1901-1908), Talbot (1909-1911) and Gamble (1915-1936) published the ‘ Flora of Presidency of Bombay’, ‘Forest flora of Bombay Presidency and Sind’ and ‘Flora of the Presidency of Madras’ respectively. In addtion Blatter & McCann (1935) published Grasses of Bombay and Bor (1960) published Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan respectively were made great contribution to documentation of this land.
The work of Buchanan-Hamilton (1807) seems to be a pioneering work in Karnataka. Buchnan-Hamilton explored the area and given an account of Mysore plants (now Karnataka State). His observation was published in 1807 in two volumes entitled “A Journey from Madras through the countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar”.
In the last few decades, a quite numbers of floras were published on different regions of Karnataka. The detailed study of Flora of Karnataka was published by Saldanha and his associates in two volumes (1984 & 1996). In addition to this, in the same year Sharma et al. (1984) published The Flora of Karnataka Analysis. It is simply a check list of Karnataka State based on BSI herbarium. Later, Flora of Eastern Karnataka was published by Singh (1988) which covered eastern districts of Karnataka. It includes Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur, Chitradurg, Gulbarga, Kolar, Raichur and Tumkur districts. The recent detailed study of Sedges of Karnataka (Cyperaceae) brought out by Prasad & Singh (2002). It was followed by the number of regional floras in different districts of Karnataka. The Flora of Bangalore district by Ramaswamy & Razi (1973) comprises about 979 spp. of flowering plants. Flora of Hassan district by Saldanha & Nicholson (1976), Flora of Chikmagalur district by Yoganarasimhan et al. (1977), Flora of Coorg (Kodagu) by Keshava Murthy & Yoganarasimhan (1990), Flora of Gulbarga district by Seetharam et al. (2000) documented about 600 spp. of flowering plants belonging to 101 families, Flora of Shimoga district by Ramaswamy et al. (2001). Flora of Udupi district by Bhat (2003) described 1242 spp. of flowering plants belonging to 694 genera and 171 families. In 2004, Flora of Davangere district by Manjunatha et al. documented total of 861 plants spp. belonging to 498 genera and 112 families. Kunnur (2009) explored the 57 Malvaceous taxa from different districts of Karnataka, of these 57 few plants have been recorded for the state. In most recently, Kambhar made a floristic survey in Gadag district; he reported a total of 815 species of flowering plants belonging to 518 genera and 113 families and submit a thesis to Karnatak University, Dharwad for award of Ph.D. (2012) .
With reference to the present area, exploration was made for the Flora of the Bombay Presidency by T. Cooke (1901-08) wherein only Bijapur district was cited. Till the end of the nineteenth century and the beginning of the twentieth century, when Cooke, Woodrow and Talbot collected plants from Bijapur district. Along with this, the workers like Bhide, Bhiva, Paranjapye, Patwardhan, Kanitkar, Shevade and Vaidya collected plants from Bijapur and their collection also deposited in BSI. In 1927 Blatter & McCann published ‘Revision of the Flora of the Bombay Presidency’ which included only Graminae (Poaceae). Since Cooke's publication of this family several new species was described and McCann added over 50 species which were new to the Presidency. He also reported some species from Bijapur district. Singh et al. (1988) have called this zone of dry land as “land of Tamarind, Temples, Thorns and stones (huge rocks and boulders included)”. This work deals with 1421 species belonging to 696 genera and 140 families of which 156 species are cultigens.
Besides this, recently in 2006, Murugan et al., reported Phyllanthus cabrifolius Hook.f. in Amingad, Bagalkot district (old Bijapur district), as a new distributional record. Further, EIA (2011) reported 28 trees, 13 shrubs, and 10 herbs from Kudgi village. Subsequently, Kambhar (2012) documented around 192 plant species from Mamadapur site, Bijapur taluka under the project entitled Establishment of a network of in situ dry zone conservation sites in Karnataka in collaboration with Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), Bengaluru. Kotresha et al. (2012) recollected Indigofera hochstetteri Baker belongs to Fabaceae in Mamdapur, Bijapur district. An available literature indicates that there is no comprehensive published account on the flowering plants of Bijapur district. In this context, the present study area remained under explored and hence the present work was undertaken to bring out a comprehensive account on flowering plants of Karnataka State Women’s University Torvi campus and its adjoining area, Bijapur.
The plant specimens were collected (in duplicate) throughout the study area, between September 2013 and April 2014. On the spot some observations were noted in the field notebook, such as habit, habitat, colour of flower and local names. Photographs of the fresh flower, twigs etc. were made with Canon Coolpix. Collector number was given to each specimen. The collected specimens were identified with aid of floras (Cooke, 1901-1908, repr. ed. 1958; Talbot, 1909 & 1911; Blatter & McCann, 1935, repr. ed. 1984; Saldanha, 1984; Singh, 1988 and Saldanha, 1996).
Besides these floras adjacent districts flora and Ph.D. thesis was also been used (Seetharam et al., 2000; Kambhar, 2012). In addition to this some of the pictorial field guides were used (Ingalhalikar, 2005; Ingalhalikar, 2007). The identities of some of the doubtfully identified specimen were confirmed by comparing with authentic specimens at online Herbarium Catalogue of Kew Botanical Gardens (K).
The nomenclature of the taxa was updated with the most recent available monographs, revisionary works and recent published floras. In the present work, Bentham and Hooker system of classification (1862-1883) was followed for the arrangement of families. For the sake of convenience, the families were arranged chronologically and taxa under each family have been arranged alphabetically.
It starts with binomial name is followed by short species description. The description of taxa followed by flowering and fruiting, local name and local names in the regional language (Kannada) was given and uses wherever available and also through available secondary literatures (Khare, 2007; Udayan & Balachandran, 2009). Name preceded with plus (+) mark indicate the cultigens throughout the present work, decimal and metric systems have been used for measurements. Only those references that have been given in the body of the text have been included in the reference section and cross references were indicated with asterisk (*) in the reference section.
Precautions were taken to protect herbarium specimens from damage. Insect repellent such as Paradichlorobenzene (Lawrence, 1951) kept in small quantities in herbarium cabinet and sprayed a weak solution of Mercuric Chloride (0.1% HgCl2) on the specimens to control the fungal attack (Ravindranath & Premnath, 1997). The specimens were deposited in the Herbarium Department of Post Graduate Studies in Botany, Karnataka State Women’s University, Bijapur, Karnataka. All references cited during this study have been provided at the end.
In the present work a total of 257 taxa, (including cultivars) belonging to 219 genera and 68 families of angiosperms have been collected and described from study area. Among the total number of taxa, 196 species comes under wild category and 61 spp. cultivars.
Out of 68 families, the first ten dominant families constitute 135 species (53%), of these Poaceae is the leading family with 27 species (20%), followed by Fabaceae 21 spp. (16%), Asteraceae 19 spp. (14%), Caesalpiniaceae 15 spp. (11%), Amaranthaceae and Malvaceae 10 spp. each (7%), Acanthaceae and Euphorbiaceae 9 spp. (7%), Convolvulaceae 8 spp. (6%), and Apocynaceae 7 spp. (5%) (Fig. 3).
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Fig. 3. Top ten families distribution of species.
Dominance of these families is due to their adaptability to the arid climatic condition. Most of these families have a large number of herbs (Kambhar and Kotresha, 2011). The remaining families are Lamiaceae, Mimosaceae and Solanaceae 7 spp. each followed by Verbenaceae, Bignoniaceae and Asclepidaceae represented by 5 spp. each. Two families represented by 4 spp., they are Cucurbitaceae and Gentinaceae. The families like Boraginaceae, Commelinaceae, Liliaceae, Moraceae, Periplocaceae, Rubiaceae and Tiliaceae are representing by 3 spp. each. Fourteen families are represented by just 2 species each, they are Annonaceae, Apiaceae, Arecaceae, Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Cleomaceae, Combretaceae, Cyperaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Pedaliaceae, Polygalaceae, Scorphulariaceae, Simaroubiaceae and Zygophyllaceae, and 29 families are represented by only one species (Agavaceae, Anacardiaceae, Aristolochiaceae, Balanitaceae, Cactaceae, Cannabinaceae, Cannaceae, Caryophyllaceae, Casurinaceae, Chenopodiaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Linaceae, Lythraceae, Magnoliaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Moringaceae, Myrtaceae, Oleaceae, Oxalidiaceae, Papaveraceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Salvadoraceae, Santalaceae, Sapindaceae, Sapotaceae, Sterculiaceae and Typhaceae).
An analysis on the life form composition of plant species of the study area reveals that majority of the plant species are herbs predominate with 160 species (62%) followed by trees with 48 species (19%), shrubs with 34 species (13%) and climbers with 15 species (6%) (Fig.4). The herbs get physiological maturity soon and produce the progeny in a couple of months in comparison to trees and shrubs that need a longer time to mature. The greater tolerance to harsh conditions could result in the predominance of herbs (Kambhar and Kotresha, 2011, Kambhar, 2012).
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Fig. 4. Habitwise distribution of species.
The present study are doesn’t have any hills or even low hills. The whole district consists of plain land. The tree growth is generally stunted with low branches; climbers are relatively less in number as shrubs are more. The herbs and grasses are comparatively good growth during the monsoon season.
The main component of being A. nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Del. ssp. indica (Benth.) Brenan. and other associates species are Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.f.) Raf., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC., Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer & Heyne, Senna siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby, all these are planted for making greenery in the campus.
The shrubs occurring all over the area are Cassia auriculata L. is dominantly spreading in the campus, which is associated with the Balanites aegyptica (L.) Del. but is seen in very stunted form, and Lantana camara L. being found.
The climbers found within the area are quite distinct. Some of the common plants are Cardiospermum halicacabum L., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt, Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Cryptostegia grandiflora R. Br., and Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr.
The common herbs occurring all over the area are Crotalaria hebecarpa (DC.) Rudd., Echinops echinatus Roxb., Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC., Lavandula bipinnata (Roth) O. Ktze., Phyllanthus maderapatensis L., Pulicaria wightiana (DC.) Cl., Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. and Waltheria indica L. Some frequently seen species are Blepharis repens (Vahl) Roth, Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Scherif and Lepidagathis cristata Willd. The species like Indigofera cordifolia Heyne ex Roth, Indigofera linifolia (L.f.) Retz. var. linifolia, Zornia gibbosa Span. and Sesamum laciniatum Klein. ex Willd., Schouwia arabica (Vahl) A. P. TIC. are sporadically occur in the campus. In monsoon season the species Cyanotis fasciculata (Heyne ex Roth) J. A. & J. H. Schult. var. fasciculata is dominantly spreading in the campus, it seems like a pink carpet on the ground.
Some rarely occurring herbs in the campus are Salvia aegyptica L., Goniocaulon glabrum Cass., and Enicostema axillare (Lam.) Raynal, Among these Salvia aegyptica L., was reported by Singh (1988) in Madhbavi pasture plot, according to him, it is very rarely distributed and confine to Bijapur district only.
Among the grasses the common species occurs all over the area are Andropogon pumilus Roxb. Apluda mutica L., Aristida adscensionis L., A. funiculata Trin. et Rupr., Chrysopogon fulvus (Spreng.) Chiov., Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., and Perotis indica (L.) O. Ktze.
Although only one bulbous species are seen in April-May; Drimia indica (Roxb.) Jessop. Some parasitic plants found in the campus are root parasites. They include S. densiflora (Benth.) Benth. and also Santalum album L. which is being cultivated sometimes.
The study are represents some avenue or ornamental trees like Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Ficus benghalensis L., Tamarindus indica L. and Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook.f.) Raf. are the most commonly used species. Besides that frequently used species are Bauhinia purpurea L., Dalbergia sissoo Roxb. ex DC., Mangifera indica L., Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.) Backer & Heyne, Samanea saman (Jacq.) Merr., Cassia siamea (Lam.) Irwin & Barneby, Ficus religiosa L., Delonix elata (L.) Gamble, Jacranda acutifolia Humb. & Bonp., Spathodea companulata P. Beauv., Terminalia catapa L. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Steud., Millingtonia hortensis L.f. and Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland. ex Corr.
Bijapur district is mainly a food grains producing area. The main principal food crops of the district are jowar, bajra, wheat, paddy and maize Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench (Jawar), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and other crops like Oryza sativa L. (paddy) and Zea mays L. (maize or corn). The pulses grown in the area are Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill., Cicer arietinum L., Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. The oil crops cultivated are Arachis hypogea L., Helianthus annuus L. and Sesamum orientale L. The vegetable crops in the area are Allium sativum L., A. cepa L., Capsicum annuum L. var. acuminata Fingerh., Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.) Taub., Luffa actuangula (L.) Roxb. var. acutangula, Solanum lycopersicum L., Momordica charantia L., Solanum melogena L. var. melogena and S. tuberosum L. Normally in command areas of the district.
Previous workers were made very little contribution towards documentation of floral wealth of Bijapur district. The major contribution was done by Singh et al. (1988) who surveyed this area, during his project work “Flora of Eastern Karnataka”. In this, he documented more than 1421 species belonging to 696 genera and 140 families of which 156 species are cultigens. in addition to this, in 2006 Murugan et al., reported Phyllanthus cabrifolius Hook.f. in Amingad, Bagalkot district (old Bijapur district), as a new distributional record. Further, Environmental Impact Assessment (2011) documented 28 trees, 13 shrubs, and 10 herbs from Kudgi village, which has been allotted for thermal power project. Subsequently, Kambhar (2012) recorded around 192 flowering plant species from Mamadapur site, Bijapur taluka under the project entitled Establishment of a network of in situ dry zone conservation sites in Karnataka in collaboration with Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT), Bengaluru. In the same year, Kotresha et al. recollected Indigofera hochstetteri Baker belongs to Fabaceae in Mamdapur, Bijapur district.
Barleria priontis L.
Undershrubs. Stems and branches terete or obsoletely quadrangular. Leaves 6-12 x 2-4 cm, elliptic, glabrous, apex acuminate, base tapering into petiole, entire. Flowers yellow, sessile, sometimes solitary in lower axils, becoming spicate above. Capsules 2-2.5 cm long, ovoid, with tapering beak. Seeds 2, to 0.8 cm diameter, compressed, with silky appressed hairs.
Fls. & Frts. : Oct-Mar; Local name; Mullu jaji.
Blepharis repens (Vahl) Roth Plate-I.1
Prostrate herbs, slender. Leaves 0.8-2.5 x 0.4-0.8 cm, oblong, obovate, scabrous, mucronate at apex, entire. Flowers blue, sessile, solitary, axillary. Capsules to 0.6 cm long, ellipsoid, compressed, enclosed in persistent sepals.
Fls. & Frts. : Oct-Mar; Local name; Harituhachga; Uses: Leaves are used in the treatment of traditional bone setting.
Crossandra undulaefolia Salisb +
Herbs with bright orange flowers. It is cultivated in garden.
Justicia adathoda L.
Bushy shrubs. Stems angular. Leaves 7-20 x 3.5-7 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, apex acuminate, base tapering. Flowers white, in dense axillary spikes, to 2-8 cm long. Capsules to 2 x 0.8 cm, clavate, subacute, bluntly pointed, pubescent. Seeds 0.6 x 0.5 cm, orbicular, oblong, glabrous.
Fls. & Frts. : Aug-Mar; Local name; Adasoge; Uses: The leaves are used to prepare syrup against bronchial cough.
Lepidagathis cristata Willd. Plate-I.2
Herbs. Stem numerous, spreading on all sides, close to the ground, slender, quadrangular. Leaves opposite, sessile, 2.0-3.5 x 0.3-0.9 cm, linear-oblong or lanceolate-oblong, hairy. Flowers white or pale pink, dotted with purple spots in globose heads. Capsules to 0.5 cm long, obovoid, subacute. Seeds 2, to 0.3 cm long, ovoid, oblong, rounded, clothed with long hygroscopic mucilaginous hairs.
Fls. & Frts. : Oct-May; Local name; Narigoodi.
Peristrophe paniculata (Forssk) Burmmit.
Herbs. Stems and branches angular. Leaves 5-8 x 2.5-3.7 cm, ovate, densely lineolate, more or less hairy above, apex acuminate, base usually rounded. Flowers rosy in trichotomous cymes, lax, divaricate, pubescent panicles. Capsules to 0.25 cm, narrowed into a cylindric stalk, pointed, pubescent. Seeds to 0.25 cm across, orbicular, papillose and slightly rugose.
Fls. & Frts. : Oct-Feb.
Rostellularia diffusa (Willd.) Nees
Erect herbs, 30-60 cm high. Leaves 2.5-4.5 x 1.2 cm, apex acute or acuminate, base cuneate. Flowers pink in axillary and terminal spikes. Capsules 4.5 x 1 cm, oblong, shortly pointed, grooved on back. Seeds to 0.1 cm across, flattened, tuberculate.
Fls. & Frts. : Oct-Mar.
Rungia elegans Dalz.
Herbs, 15-45 cm high. Stems somewhat angular. Leaves 3.5-5.5 x 1-3.5 cm, elliptic, lanceolate, apex acute, base rounded. Flowers bluish in sessile, terminal spikes, 2.5 cm long. Capsules 0.4-0.5 x 0.25-0.3 cm, mucronate. Seeds broadly oblong and rounded at apex, rugose with concentric furrows, yellow or brown.
Fls. & Frts. : Sep-Mar.
Sanchezia nobilis Hook.f. +
Herbs with bright yellow flowers, it is grown in garden.
Agave americana L.
Robust undershrubs. Leaves linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, in rosette, marginal spines erect or recurved. Flowers yellowish green, crowded on bracteate scape. Perianth lobes elliptic-oblong. Capsule ovoid or elliptic. Seeds black, shining.
Fls. & Frts. : Sep-Dec; Local name; Rakspatti.
Achyranthes aspera L. Plate-I.3
Herbs, 30-80 cm high, erect. Leaves 2.5-9.0 x 1.5-6 cm, elliptic, oblong, ovate or obovate, apex acuminate. Inflorescence of elongate terminal spikes. Flowers greenish, white. Utricles oblong.cylindric, truncate, enclosed in hardened perianth.
Fls. & Frts. : Sep-Oct; Local name; Uttaraani; Uses: Root, seeds and leaves are used in the form of juice and powder to treat excessive hunger, piles, wounds, eye diseases.
Aerva lanata (L.) Juss. ex Schult. Plate-I.4
Herbs, branches woolly tomentose. Leaves alternate, elliptic-obovate, 1.9-2.5 x 0.9-1.5 cm, apiculate, pubescent above, white woolly hairy beneath. Flowers in spikes, axillary, spikes to 1.2 cm, forming crowded clusters, bracteoles broadly ovate, apiculate, silky on back. Tepals 5, to 0.2 cm, oblong, mucronate, silky hairy on back. Utricle ovoid.
Fls. & Frts. : Dec-Feb; Local name; Bilihindi soppu.
Alternanthera pungens Humboldt.
Prostrate herbs, spiny, 50 cm high. Leaves 3.5 x 3 cm, obovate or orbicular. Flowers greenish, white, in axillary heads. Tepals 5, outer 3 tepals 3 nerved, to 0.5 cm, inner tepals 2, to 0.4 cm, all spinescent, with glochidiate hairs on back. Stamens alternating with laciniate pseudo-staminodes. Utricles one seeded, compressed, narrowly winged.
Fls. & Frts. : Mar-Dec; Local name; Mullu honagonne.
Alternanthera sessilis (L.) R. Br.
Prostrate herbs, old branches glabrous, younger with two opposite lines of hairs. Leaves 1.2-5 x 0.3-2 cm, linear-oblong, elliptic-lanceolate. Flowers sessile, white, in axillary heads, bracteoles to 0.2cm, ovate. Tepals 5, unequal, ovate, acute, 1 nerved, white. Stamens 3, alternating with staminodes.
Fls. & Frts. : Throughout the year; Local name; Honagone soppu; Uses: Whole plant is used as a rejuvenator.
Amaranthus viridis L.
Herbs, much branched, 30.60 cm tall. Leaves 2.8 x 1.5 cm, ovate or deltoid, apex obtuse, usually notched, base truncate or cuneate. Flowers pale green in axillary clusters and also in terminal and axillary panicled spikes. Fruits ovoid, 0.15 cm long, shortly beaked. Seeds 0.1 cm across, compressed, smooth, black, shining.
Fls. & Frts. : Sep-Dec; Local name; Chelakeerae soppu.
Amarantus spinosus L.
Erect herbs, to 30 cm high,. Leaves 2-6 x 0.5-3.5 cm, ovate, rhomboid or oblong. Spikes pale green, 2-9.5 cm long, simple or branched. Utricles 0.1-0.15 cm long, conical, thickened at top, rugose. Seeds shining, discoid, to 0.1 cm across.
Fls. & Frts. : Jul-Feb; Local name; Mulludantu.
Celosia argentea L.
Procumbent herbs, 30-90 cm high. Leaves 0.5-2.0 x 0.3-1.5 cm, broadly ovate, lanceolate, elliptic or linear. Inflorescence of dense, terminal spikes. Flowers white or pink. Utricles ellipsoid, tapering at apex into style.
Fls. & Frts. : Aug-Feb; Local name; Kolani.
Digera muricata L. Plate-I.5
Herbs, 30 cm high. Leaves 2-4 x 1.5-3 cm, ovate or elliptic, apex acute or rounded. Flowers greenish.pink. Utricles to 0.2 cm across, globose, mucronate. Seeds yellowish.brown.
Fls. & Frts. : Jul-Dec; Local name; Gorage pallye.
Gomphrena celosioides Mart. Plate-I.6
Herbs, prostrate. Leaves 1-3 x 0.5 cm, elliptic-oblong, obovate-oblong, upper surface glabrous, lower densely pilose. Flowers in terminal, short spikes, bracts to 0.3 cm, deltoid-ovate, mucronate, bracteoles 2, to 0.6 cm, mucronate. Tepals 5, equal, free, white cottony on back, linear-lanceolate. Utricles indehiscent, smooth. Seeds notched on one side.
Fls. & Frts. : Jun-Jan; Local name; Neraludrakshi.
Trichurus monsoniae (L.f.) Townsend Plate-I.7
Herbs. Leaves whorled, linear, to 2 cm, cuspidate. Flowers in terminal dense spikes, flower white later becoming pink, bracts 2, cuspidate, oblanceolate. Tepals lanceolate, acute, persistent, woolly hairy inside. Filaments connate below cup, pseudostaminodes present. Utricle 1 seeded. Seeds reddish brown, ovoid.
Fls. & Frts. : Sep-Mar.
Mangifera indica L. +
It is well known trees with crowded leaves at the ends of branches, oblong-lanceolate, flowers polygamous in terminal panicles with fleshy fruit. It is extensively cultivated near habitations and also along roadsides. It is locally, called as ‘Maavu’
Annona squamosa L. +
It is familiar shrubby species with elliptic-oblong leaves and globose fruit, tuberculate with rounded tips. It is frequently cultivated in gardens and along bunds of fields for its edible fruits, sometimes found in wild. It is locally known as ‘ sitaphal ’
Polyalthia longifolia (Sonnerat) Thwaites +
It is medium sized handsome trees with subumbellate clusters of greenish yellow flowers. Ripen fruit turning reddish black which is attracted by birds like Cuckoo. It is largely cultivated in gardens as avenue or ornamental trees.
Coriandrum sativum L. +
Strongly smelling, herbs with pinately or ternately compound leaves. Flowers in terminal compound umbels. It is commonly cultivated for its leaves and seeds both used as flavouring material and in condiments, spices and medicines. Locally, it is called as ‘ Kothambri’
Foeniculum vulgare Mill. +
Erect herbs with much dissected leaves. Flowers in terminal compound umbels. Fruits ovate-elliptic, 10-ribbed, beaked. It is commonly cultivated. Seeds used in ‘paan’, after meal as purgative and mouth freshner and also in Ayurvedic medicines. It is commonly called as ‘sop’
Allamanda violacea Gaertn. +
Large scandent shrubs with milky latex, flowers campanulate with red colour. It is commonly cultivated in gardens.
Catharanthus pusilla (Murr.) G. Don. Plate-I.8
Herbs, 15-45 cm high, branches quadrangular. Leaves 3-7.5 x1.2-2.5 cm, lanceolate, tapering at base, acute at apex. Flowers white, axillary. Follicles 3.5 cm long, slender, membranous. Seeds 0.2-0.3 cm long, cylindric with muriculate ribs.
Fls. & Frts. : Jul-Sep; Local name; Vishakanagile soppu.
Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. +
Herbs with white or rosy pink flowers. It is grown in gardens and also found near waste lands. Flowers are used in temples or homes for worship to god. Leaves bark and seeds used in Ayurvedic medicine especially stomach disorders.
Nerium indicum Mill. +
Shrubs with fragrant white, pink or red flowers. It is grown in garden for its showy flowers. It is locally, called as ‘Kanagile hoo’
Plumeria rubra L. +
Small or large trees with fragrant white flowers in terminal peduncled corymbs. It is cultivated for its beautiful flowers. Sometime these flowers are used for worship. Plant becomes leafless for major part of year.
Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. +
Shrubs with lanceolate or elliptic-oblong leaves. Flowers white in terminal cymes. It is cultivated near temples or gardens for its flowers. It is locally, called as ‘ Nandibatlu’
Thevetia peruviana (Pers.) Merr. +
Evergreen shrubs with linear leaves and yellow or light orange flowers. It is oftenly planted in gardens.
Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
Aristolochia bracteolata Lam. Plate-II.1
Herbs. Stems prostrate. Leaves as broad as long, 4-7 x 5-9 cm, reniform or broadly ovate, cordate at base with a wide sinus. Flowers solitary, pedicels with a sessile orbicular bract at base. Perianth tube cylindiric with a trumpet shaped mouth, lip linear, dark purple, with revolute margins.
Fls. & Frts. : Jul-Nov; Local name; Eeshvari beru; Uses: Roots used to treat snake-poison and cough.
Asclepias curassvica L. Plate-II.2
Erect undershrubs. Stems branched from base, branches purplish or red. Leaves petiolate, 8-12 x 1-2.5 cm, lanceolate, apex and base acute. Flowers in extra-axillary, umbellate cymes. Corolla reflexed, rotate, corona of 5 oblong lobes, each lobe forming a sort of hood over an incurved, subulate process.
Fls.: Throughout the year. Frts: Feb-May.
Calotropis gigantea (L.) R. Br. Plate-II.3
Erect shrubs, to 3 m high. Stems woody, terete, branched. Leaves subsessile, 5-17 x 3-9 cm, broadly obovate or elliptic-oblong, base cordate. Flowers in lateral,umbellate or subcorymbose cymes. Corolla 3-4 cm across, lobes spreading, divided 2/3 of way down, corona5, laterally compressed, completely adnate to staminal column. Follicles 7-10 cm long in pairs, boat shaped with hooked tip, cottony pubescent. Seeds with coma, silky, broadly ovoid.
Fls. & Frts. : Oct-Jul; Local name; Ekka; Uses: Root bark used to relieve diarrhea, dysentery, fever, asthma, elephantiasis and hydrocele.
Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata (Wall.) Grav. & Mayur Plate-II.4
Succulent herbs. Stems fleshy, latex watery. Leaves present only on young branches, reduced to scales. Flowers subterminal, solitary or paired. Calyx 5 lobed, divided to base. Corolla lobes 5, lanceolate, oblong, apex apiculate, corona staminal, biseriate, outer annular, with two filiform filaments, alternating with anther lobes. Follicles usually solitary, 5.5-12.3 x 0.3-0.5 cm, cylindrical, beaked with curved tip, glabrous. Seeds many, coma silky white.
Fls. & Frts. : Jan-Sep.
Pergularia pallida (Forssk.) Chiov. Plate-II.5
Twining undershrubs. Leaves reniform, ovate, deeply cordate at base. Flowers in drooping corymbose cymes. Corolla glabrous outside, hairy within, dull greenish yellow or white. Follicles strongly reflexed lanceolate, attenuate into a long beak. Seeds dentate along margins, densely pubescent, coma silky white.
Fls. & Frts. : Jul-Dec.
Tylophora indica (Burm.f.) Merr. Plate-II.6
Twining undershrubs. Leaves petiolate, 5-10 x 4-5 cm, ovate-oblong or elliptic-oblong, pubescent when young, acute or apiculate at apex, rounded at base. Flowers in lateral umbels. Corolla 1-1.5 cm across, yellowish green, lobes 0.6 x 0.3 cm, elliptic, obtuse, corona of 5, fleshy, obovate, cuneate lobes. Follicles 6-7 cm long, in pairs, lanceolate, tapering to a point.
Fls. & Frts. : Jul-Feb; Local name; Aadumuttada gida; Uses: Root and leaves used to treat spider poisoning, asthma and whooping cough.
Acanthospermum hispidium DC.
Herbs. Stems dichotomously branched, hispid, covered with spreading hirsute glandular hairs. Leaves opposite, elliptic, oblanceolate or obovate, attenuate at base. Heads yellow, ray flowers ligulate, disc flowers tubular 5 lobed. Achenes triangular, covered with stiff hooked bristles and with divergent awns at apex.
Fls. & Frts. : Aug-Dec; Local name; Kandle soppu.
Bidens biternata (Lour.) Merr. & Scherif.
Annuals herbs, to 80 cm high, erect. Stems quadrangular, ribbed, hairy. Leaves ternate or imparipinnate to bipinnate, ultimate. Leaflets ovate, acute. Heads yellow, to 1.3 cm in diameter, in terminal or leaf opposed peduncles. Pappus setae 2-4, retrorsely hispid, bristly. Achenes linear, black.
Fls. & Frts. : Aug-Dec.
Blainvillea acmella (L.) Philip. Plate-II.7
Herbs, 30-40 cm high, erect. Leaves ovate, ovate-lanceolate or ovate-rhomboid, hispid. Heads yellow or white, 0.5-1 cm in diameter, in axillary and terminal cymes, ligules bifid. Pappus setae few, antrorsely barbed, upto 0.1 cm long. Achenes hairy near top.
Fls. & Frts. : Aug-Nov.
Blumea lacera (Burm.f.) DC.
Herbs, 20-80 cm tall, aromatic. Stem grooved, glandular pubescent. Leaves 3-8 x 2.5 cm, obovate-oblong, incised or sometimes lyrately lobed, silky pubescent, margins serrate, dentate. Heads 0.4-0.6 cm across, involucral bracts 0.3-0.4 cm long, slightly longer than corolla. Achenes oblong, hairy, subangulate,terete.
Fls. & Frts. : Oct-May.
Conyza bonariensis (L.) Cronq. Plate-II.8
Herbs, to 80 cm high. Leaves sessile, appressed hairy. Heads about 0.25 cm across, white or yellow, in terminal corymbose cymes. Pappus uniseriate. Achenes pale brown, flat, hairy.
Fls. & Frts. : Jan-Apr.
Dicoma tomemtosa Cass. Plate-III.1
Erect herbs, branches clothed with white cottony wool. Leaves linear or linear-obovate. Heads campanulate, leaf opposed or terminal. Involucral Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten
bracts many seriate, glabrous, ending in long cuspidate point. All florets similar, bisexual, with white corolla.
Akademische Arbeit, 12 Seiten
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Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 24 Seiten
Seminararbeit, 16 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 7 Seiten
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