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104 Seiten, Note: A
Purpose of Study
Statement of Problem
Aim and Objectives
Significance of the Study on theory, policy, practice and education
Implication for Research/Theory
Implication for Policy
Implication for Professional Practice/Education
Definition of Concept
LITERATURE REVIEW: Link between Domestic Violence/ IPV and Children’s Mental Health
Overviews of Domestic violence and Children Mental Health
Continental African Perspectives
Impacts on Children
Domestic violence and Child Abuse
Domestic Violence and Developmental Stage
Intergenerational and Domestic Violence
Role of Social Work in domestic violence
THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
Consideration of Domestic Violence Factors within an Ecological Framework
Application of Ecological Theory
Developmental -Ecological Perspectives
DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
Microsystems Factors on Mother and Child
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
The recent interest in children's exposure to domestic violence (DV) has brought about the argument concerning the effects of such experience on their mental health. As a severe societal issue, domestic violence signifies a source of susceptibility aimed at young people and serves as a threat towards attaining constructive outcomes. This study explores developmental-ecological model and planned to increase our knowledge and understanding of children's exposure to domestic violence, (CEDV) in a household. The study used the accessible materials on the incidence of domestic violence to analyse and comprehend the emotional and behavioral trajectories that result from children early experience of domestic violence in a household. Finally, findings show that there is significant correlation between witnessing violence at home and children mental health.
Domestic violence, children at risk, mental health, intimate partner violence, and children exposed to domestic violence, exposure to domestic violence, children witnessing domestic violence.
Domestic violence is globally described by various scholars, academicians and professionals in human development as a stern social problem, and to say the least, a human rights violation. Recent debate on domestic violence explains the significant influence it has on children's mental health. Research over the years creates more awareness about the ordeal of children induced by family violence [McIntosh, 2009]. Nevertheless, the main problems identifies in domestic violence literatures is how to connect the vulnerable young children with the probable inter-spousal trauma that disrupt their neurological and biochemical pathways in development (Dodd, 2009, Kershaw et al 2008, Barnish, 2004, McGee 1997, Humphreys, 2006,).
Moreover, literature confirms the existing relationships between exposure to domestic violence (DV) and children’s development. For example, the British Psychological Society (BPS 2007) states that witness domestic violence at home will impact negatively on children quality of life. Besides, it is also establish that community offers limited support to tackle the problem of domestic violence. This is due to the increase in traditional and social cultural factors that mitigate such aggressive behavior. The term “domestic violence” is generally denotes as intimate conditions in which any of the partners in a household abused or abusing the other partner psychologically or physically. This situation is not limit to only one sex partner in a household but associates with both men and women living together in the same household (Holt, Buckley &Whelan, 2008). Moreover, domestic violence is a gender oriented and it creates social and public health issues that cut across nations, cultures religion and class (McIntosh, 2002, Dodd, 2009, UNIFEM 2007, Mooney 2000) and at the same time it is associates with particular cultural cum tribal communities, or restricted to a group in the society. While it is widely agree that intimate partner violence demonstrates a social problem that cut across nation, race, culture, ethnic groups and traditions, the recent challenges poses by its occurrence increases the interest and awareness that emanates from children exposure to DV. This deepened the observed awareness about its implication and influence on vulnerable young children (Hague & Mullender, 2006; Hazen, Connolly, Kelleher, Barth, & Landsverk, 2006).
Earlier research shows that children living in a domestic violence environment are prone to violent, frighten and other antisocial behavior. It is also establish that children living in hostile environment displayed low-level of social capability, and learning outcomes in school (Kitzmann, Gaylord, Holt & Kenny, 2003; Wolfe, Crooks, Lee McIntyre-Smith & Jaffe, 2003, Edleson & Nissley, 2011). Therefore, domestic violence encompasses all social, economic, religious and ethnic groups in the society (McIntosh, 2002, Dodd, 2009). Despite this evidence reports confirms that families from low socioeconomic background are the most affected compare to those from high socioeconomic background.
Furthermore, research suggests that growing in a hostile and unfriendly environment impact on children emotional, physical, and social development. Therefore children experiencing or associating with domestic violence develops service needs that correlates with their safety and impact on their mental, physical, and cognitive development. Dodd (2009), maintains that children raise in a domestic violence environment experiences poor socio-cognitive development in life .This influence their emotional, social, behavioral and intellectual development (Lazenbatt et al, 2009). The exposure of young people to DV results to high aggressiveness, anxiety, and changes in their social skills particularly, how they relate with friends, family, and authorities. Research also linked repression, and self-worth problems to children harrowing experiences. This shows that children experiencing DV develops social-cognitive problems, as well as poor problem-solving skills. Sadeler, (1994) suggests a correlation between the following experiences: ill-treatment; lack of care in childhood; committing partner violence; and sexual abuse in later life. He maintains that the perpetrator of violence deliberately mistreat the mother, while the youngster is present watching the scenario. This causes a ripple effect that will not only hurt the mother but also the child witnessing the dangerous situation, Damant, et al, (2010).
Also, research confirms a significant relationship between children witnessing mother assault and exhibiting signs of post-traumatic stress disorder, (PTSD) (Lehmann et al, 1995). Similarly, a body of research establishes a strong link amongst children experiencing domestic violence, i.e. menace of mental health difficulties, genetic transmitted of spousal violence in adulthood, and value of parental dealings that creates child’s conduct difficulties (Capaldi & Clark, 1998; Ehrensaft et al., 2003; Osofsky, 2003). This experience promotes high aggressiveness, rebellious, poor social adjustment and other internalizing conduct problems (e.g., Darby, Allan, Kashani, Hartke, & Reid, 1998; Edleson, 1999; Kitzmann, Gaylord, Holt, & Kenny, 2003). A body of research also highlight high important correlation between child abuse, in direct family violence exposure, community violence experience and various psychological problems, such as despair, worry, low self-confidence, substance misuse and dependency (Edleson, 1999; Lynch, 2003; Margolin & Gordis, 2004; Martinez & Richters, 1993). This contact requires psycho-social support and intervention from professionals working with children. The support will motivate and help them to engage in sociocognitive activities such as working through their ordeal, develop good judgment of situation, understanding the situational factors, assessing their safety issues, discover and learn how to relate with the innocuous people in their environment. Also, it will increase competency and self-belief in their ability and environment (Straus & Gelles, 1990; Graham-Bermann, Lynch, Banyard, Devoe, &Halabu, 2007).
Furthermore, study reveals that children experience domestic violence and receives limited support and coöperation displays high severe maladjustment and developmental delay. Although research established that both male and female are the perpetrator of violence (Mirrlees-Black, 1999; Morse, 1995), recent documents suggests that the idea of evenness in domestic violence is debatable. Research maintains that menfolk are more probable of engaging in domestic violence than womenfolk. Similarly, Tjaden and Thoennes, 2000; Walbyand Allen, 2004; and Watson and Parsons, 2005, reports that the number of reported violent against the womenfolk definitely exceeds men. Studies also suggests that the implication of abuse both psychologically and physically is more pronounced among womenfolk than menfolk, (Walby & Allen, 2004; Watson & Parsons, 2005; Women’s Aid & and the Child and Women Abuse Studies Unit, London, 2001). Research also shows that womenfolk are definitely at higher risk of severe and fatal abuse of their spouse than the menfolk are in danger of abuse from their spouse (Campbell, Sharps, &Glass, 2001; Jaffe, Lemon, & Poisson, 2003; Walby & Myhill, 2001; World Health Organization, 2002). These findings heaved serious concerns on the issue of safety for young children witnessing violence (Edleson et al., 2003) .
This research intended to broaden our understanding about children witnessing domestic violence over time. This study will use developmental-ecological perspective to understand and analysis the emotional and behavioral problems that emanates from early exposure to intimate violence at home and explores the magnitude of the connection between DV and children’s mental health. Although previous reports on domestic violence emphasizes more on the adult’s victims recent that evidence suggests little consideration is given to the psychological effects of children in domestic violence environment.. Therefore, this study will target the psycho-social impacts of DV on children’s wellbeing in the context of their environment and analyses the implication of DV on dyadic relationship between children, parents, families and society at large. Moreover, based on the gaps in previous studies, the research will systematically check and lean toward a collaborative and community wide response to the issue.
The recent evidence of adults experiencing domestic violence shows that the study is well documented and remains an issue of public concern. (Eldeson, et al 2006, Fantuzzo & MOHR, 1999, Jouriles, Northwood, McDonald, Vincent& Mahoney, 1996, Kitzman Gaylord, Hott & Kenny, 2003, Margolin & Gordis, 2004) Research establishes that little effort is directed on youngsters witnessing DV particularly in Sub Sahara Africa. Similarly, studies show that most of the research work on DV is concentrated on fierceness against women. Thus, the occurrence of DV continues to raise global concern about its implication on health and wellbeing of children and family
Although the subject drew people’s attention on the precarious situation it left the victims, particularly the vulnerable young children the needs to address the perilous situation before it causes more damage to the society is required. While the issue was clouded in obscurity, recent development calls for urgent attention from policy makers and researchers. Besides, research on the subject illustrates more on system responses and mostly targeting adult’s victims of abuse, thus gives limited or no devotion to children who are targets of domestic violence. As a result, this study will discuss this gap and shed light on how to minimize the psycho-social implication of such experience on the lives of salient victims in the society. Due to the complexity and difficulty associated with the subject, there is a need for high increase in research literature that observes the child development problems connected with domestic violence.
The research goal is to analyze the relationship between Intimate Partner Violence and children's mental health.
1. The study will look at the potential predictors of DV among children in Sub Sahara Africa using an ecological or contextual model (Bronfenbrenner, 1986),
2. To understand how children experience and define domestic violence and how it affects their wellbeing and quality of life.
3. To find the special needs of children at risk of domestic violence and clarify why consideration of mental health of children’s experiencing violence is significant for families, practitioner and administrators.
4.To show the role of social work and explore how people in general and social workers in particular, can try and limit or lessening the destructive effects of children experiencing domestic violence.
5. To develop a comprehensive conceptual framework for IPV and children’s mental health that integrates what is now documented in the issues that cause, support domestic violence in the family, and realistically capture the complexity of this social problem on children's mental health.
1. Do children exposed to domestic violence affect their social and emotional adjustment?
2. To what extent does exposure to domestic violence affects psycho-social behavior of boys and girls?
3. How do children experience and define violence? What are its effects on them?
4. What are the special necessities of children at risk of DV?
5. What can society and social workers in particular do to reduce the harmful influence of children witnessing intimate partner violence?
Research shows that witnessing intimate partner violence is a shocking and terrifying experiences for young children and it influence their psycho-social adjustment. This study analyzes the effect of DV on children's mental health. Though, earlier report establishes that many children are in danger of living in a domestic violence household. However, without proper assessment and intervention children suffers permanent adverse effects on their wellbeing. It is imperative that the latest research on domestic violence should re-focus and concentrate on how to understand and analyze the complexity surrounding children witnessing domestic violence in their home.
The study will contribute immensely to the existing knowledge in the field of early intervention particularly on children's mental health. The study will provide evidence based knowledge with strong focus on application of theory to practice. This point to the need for more research that broader in scope and covers more geographical area; socioeconomic background; ethnicity; and cultural background of children witnessing domestic violence. The study will raise more pertinent questions that involves multi-disciplinary approaches and methodology and expose gaps that needs further investigation and
The issue of children witnessing domestic violence remains an important major concern not only for policy makers but also for the families and society at large. This statement justifies the importance of policy in this area. However, data propose that such experience has long-term consequences for children wellbeing and affect their sociocognitive functioning by the time they reach adulthood. Though national awareness of spousal violence on womenfolk has developed lately; but proper acknowledgments of the wishes of children who see such violence remain unnoticed. Based on this assumption, the research will tackle the inadequacies that exist in policies implementation. Given the deleterious implications of children witnessing violence, it is imperative for policy makers to formulate programs or actions that mediate children’s lives and support healthy psychological adjustment. In addition, policy makers, themselves may become proactive because of the availability and current information and take corrective measures that improve existing policies on domestic violence. Last but not the least; the research will help in expanding the policy making process and incorporating more stakeholders. This will make the process more effective, transparent and inclusive.
The study will help practitioners such as social workers, family support workers, counsellors, nurses; youth workers, health practitioners among others to identify multidisciplinary approach that define, help, and understand children at risk of DV. The study will give a strong knowledge base for practitioners on child development; develop skills for conducting a comprehensive assessment and helps in figuring out protective and risk factors, and support for children witnessing domestic violence. For example, social workers will use the information to strengthen parent-child relationship, which can jeopardize, when children are exposed to family violence. Through strong knowledge based, the research will help practitioners understand and design more effective and collaborative interventions for children exposed to domestic violence, using holistic approach.
Domestic Violence: This is refers to as a form of assaulting and aggressive behavior such as physical, sexual and emotional attacks and economic oppression that grown person practice against a spouse partner.
Children at risk: This is refers to as children living in a home where DV occur with increased possibility of deprived physical, emotional and behavioral consequences as a result of their exposure or experiences with violence.
Intimate Partner Violence: This refers to as physical assault, rape, and stalking perpetrated by an existing or previous date, spouse or sharing partner (i.e. living together as a couple).
Exposure to Domestic Violence: mean viewing or hearing the ferocious actions, direct participation, (for example, trying to arbitrate or calling the police) or suffering the aftermath, (for example, seeing bruises, or perceiving maternal depression).
Children Exposed to Domestic Violence, (CEDV): is refers to children seeing hearing or being conscious of fierceness against one blood relation figure, which is committed by another parent symbol. It is used interchangeably in this study as children living with violence.
Witnessing domestic violence: is referring to seeing, hearing or being in some way open to DV in a household.
This chapter feature learning taken from international published literatures on the connection between DV and children’s mental wellbeing. It explains major findings from the International, Continental and Sub-Continental literatures on children witnessing domestic violence particularly in Sub-Sahara Africa. Research shows that studies on domestic violence concentrated more on the effects of the subject on adult victims with less emphasis given to children living in a domestic violence household. This study intends to fill the gaps in previous studies and justifies the existing relationship between DV and children’s wellbeing. The review of literature were sourced through combination of the following: extensive library searches of articles and journals using electronic databases such as, Academic and Business Source Premier (EBSCO), JSTOR, Zetoc, Web of Science (ISI), Google Scholar and Science Direct (Elsevier).
This section is arranged as highlighted below and covers the following areas:
1.Overview of Domestic Violence and children's mental health
4.Impacts on Children
5.Domestic violence and Child abuse
7. Domestic Violence and Developmental Stage
10.Intergenerational and Domestic Violence
11.The Roles of Social Work in domestic violence
12. Theoretical Framework
Research continues to prove that young children are potential victims of domestic violence at home and these happens in different ways. Conversely, for children witness domestic violence in a household such brutal exposure is often followed by many negative evolving factors such as, poverty, female-headed household and lack of education of the main caregiver (Fantuzzo, Boruch, Beriama, Atkins, & Marcus, 1997). It is evidently clear that children living in a violent household get involved in the violence. Most of these children feel that they can call, seek for support or being branded as the main cause of the abusive situation. Research also supports that most of this children are living in ferocious households therefore, they are prone to menace of physical harm both during prenatal and postnatal (Christian, Scribano, Seidl, & Pinto-Martin, 1997; Peedicayil et al., 2004).
It was obvious that exposure of young children to domestic violence impact negatively on their sociocognitive functioning. Earlier research on DV documents the menace as endemic and dangerous to health and well-being of young children. Similarly, recent evidence continues to show that such exposure has long-term implications for children wellbeing (Peedicayil et al., 2004). This development has drawn global attention particularly, the causes, effects and how it portends the emotional wellbeing of young victims. Moreover, debate on DV caught the attention of various researchers, nevertheless the focal point of most research studies on domestic violence were on the adult’s victims. Research acknowledges that the issue of battered women has been mounting for over two decades and the debate about their children has not receives much consideration and respect it deserved in research literature until 1980s.
Research demonstrates that young children respond to domestic violence in many ways. However, studies establish that children, who often or constantly experiencing occurrence of domestic violence against a parent, will bear the worst result of its effects later in life. The emotional disturbance displayed by children witnessing violence at home is mostly observed by teachers in school particularly, through systematic observation of traumatic violence exhibited in their play with peers, and also by paediatricians in the hospital, through assessment of their loss or slow developmental progress. Also research shows that some of these children are highly aggressive in their general dealing or relationship with peers, and most of the time, they show signs of depression and withdrawal in their day-to-day activities (Osofsky, 1997).
On the other hand, most of the children’s victims of DV show signs of distress in their development, while others display high sense of resilient to such negative exposure. Kitzmann et al., (2003), documents a significant correlation amongst children witnessing DV and those physically maltreated. They also establish that, most children exhibited high levels of resilience to the harmful consequences of witnessing violence at home. Other studies also documents that children living in violence household displays sign of social and emotional problems, compare to those who never experience DV (Graham-Bermann, 2001).Nevertheless, research indicates that the higher the level of family or social support available to a child at risk, the more resistant he/she will be (Masten & Reed, 2002). A body of research confirms the positive roles that effective caring, emotional and stable parents played in alleviating harm young children (Edleson, Mbilinyi, &Shetty, 2003; Holden, Stein, Ritchie, Harris, & Jouriles, 1998; Levendosky, Lynch, & Graham-Bermann, 2000; Sullivan, Nguyen, Allen, Bybee, & Juras, 2000). This notion further highlight the impacts of early interventions had on children’s well-being and quality of life (Jenkins & Bell, 1997).For this reason, findings and analysis on DV are indirect and it based on empirical speculation. Despite this assertion, research continue to support that children raised in a domestic violence environment display a high risk of maladjustment in life compare to those raised in a violence free environment.
Additionally, without proper assessment of the occurrence of children observing DV, it is hard for professionals working with vulnerable children identify proper and effective intervention. Therefore, response requires from various sectors of the society helps in deciding how we structure or organize the questions generate from the debate on domestic violence. That's why debates about children witnessing domestic violence in their home generate the following questions: how many children experiencing DV daily? What are their experiences? How related is this traumatic event to their wellbeing? What factors promote or protect against, possible deleterious results of child exposure to DV? What kind of support helps to lessen these harmful effects? This study will give answers to all these and other questions generated using scientific and rigorous research base.
The global research documents support DV as a huge societal endemic (Clements et al., 2008), and a stern public health matter that requires general attention (Radford, 2008; Mezey & Bewley, 1997). Therefore, to have a better understanding of various problems associated with DV and children's mental health, it is imperative as scholars to deal with the issue from a strategic cum evidence based perspective. This requires broader understanding of existing national and international literature, policies and practice initiatives related to domestic violence. Although DV is a subject of global discourse, the issue is internationally documented as a serious crime to humanity in terms of human rights and public health (World Health Organization 2005.). Research shows that all DV is a violation of the Human Rights Act of 1998 (Barnish, 2004). Also it seen as contravenes the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) particularly, Article five which affirm and emphasize that “No one’s shall be exposed to agony, heartless, undignified handling or punishment”.
In addition, it also worth mentioning that the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) General Recommendation, No. 19, implores all nations to take decisive steps and strong measures to end gender based violence in our societies. According to (CEDAW), domestic violence is “a discernment that constrains womenfolk’s competence to rights and self-determinations on a foundation of parity with menfolk”. Furthermore, (CEDAW) recommends that governments should attempt to put in place laws that would not only condemn violent acts within the family but also condemn other barbaric similar acts such as rape, sexual assault and other forms of gender-based violence that placed women’s honour and dignity into disrepute. Although these rights are universally acknowledged however, it should not subordinate to any forms of cultural norms and traditions. On the contrary, violence against women continues to be a major problem of endemic proportions that affects family stability and dynamic (UNIFEM 2007).
Also, various reports and documents show that women are highly prone to violence than men when they are in an intimate relationship. Research emphasizes that DV as a social menace, remain a pervasive social element in all societies, countries and the world at large (WHO, 2005). Moreover, recent studies establish that the process of understanding the cause and consequences of domestic violence has generated more interest among researchers recently than it was before. This situation arouses international agreement on how to curb the social menace before it causes damage to the child's development and families in general. It's worth mentioning that the following documents, treaties and declarations such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women adopted by the United Nations General Assembly 20 years ago, the decade-old Convention on the Rights of the Child, and the Platform for Action adopted at the Fourth International Conference on Women in Beijing in 1995, all reflects and affirms the general consensus on domestic violence and children.
Although little progress was recorded despite the general interest generated from the various stakeholders. This is unconnected to the fact that the attitudes are deeply entrenched, and no define strategies are in place to arrest the menace of domestic violence. As a result of this inadequacy, women continue to be at the receiving end of various violent behaviors recorded globally, with the total estimations differ by 20 to 50 per cent from one nation to the other. Consequently, studies show that the global rate of violence is very alarming. This report is emphasized in the various studies on its incidence and occurrence worldwide. Thus, no society can claim of violent free nevertheless, the differences observe in any violence situations are in the patterns or trends across the world. Research shows that certain sets of women compare to others are susceptible to DV. This include: those from less significant groups; native and migrant women; refugee women; those in war situations; those in institutions and custody; women suffering from ill health; female children in the household; last but not the least, the elderly or ageing women are highly vulnerable to DV.
As foundation of many cultures and beliefs, DV is rampant in our society and often overlooked or ignored by all due to the perception of the concept. This explanation further confirms that domestic violence failed to receive attention in all society bearing in mind the devastating effects it has on families and children. The general observation across the world is that DV remains the greatest obstacle that ends subservience of womenfolk. Based on this notion, women out of fear find it hard to refuse or negotiate safe sex with their partners. This increases their susceptibility to abuse and HIV/AIDS, at the same time affects the general well-being of their children if they are living with them in the abusive home. The review of literature shows that professionals such as psychologists gathered information and ideas on different areas of violence and how they impacts on family in North America. Research shows that the issues is quite synonymous to all countries (Barnett & La Violette, 1993; Batres & Claramunt, 1992; Campbell, 1995; Chalk &King, 1998; Dutton, 1992; Hanse & Harway, 1993; Herman, 1992; McGrath, Keita, Strickland, & Russo, 1990; van der Kolk, 1994; Walker, 1979, 1984, 1997; Yllo, 1993).
Despite various attempts by professionals to define the emergence and the occurrence of DV, the information gathered reveals limited or few dependable statistics. The fourth United Nations (UN) International Conference on Women, held in China in 1994, demands the participant nations not to only report the existence of DV in their respective countries, but come out with strategies and ideas that will curb and limit its devastating effects of the menace on both children and women. Evidence shows that no country has come out to debunk the general occurrence of domestic violence in their society, even as statistical surveys and the real intervention plan vary from one society to the other (United Nations, 1996). Sequel to the period amid the first UN Conference on Women in 1975 and the latter, the issue on how to stop, prevent and protect women and children against domestic violence remains the focal issue for debate. Nonetheless, various international studies highlight the significant relationship between instances of DV and child maltreatment. Besides, most evidence and analysis recognizes that children witnessing domestic violence in their home are not given attention they deserved nor do they receive specific intervention services that will suit their personal needs, not to talk of being the focus of academic research. That is why Davies and Krane (2006) reports that by looking at various scenarios of domestic violence we will agree that vulnerable children are the “forgotten victims” whereas they should form the focal point of domestic violence interventions.
Researches from the United States shows that around 15.5 million American children are grow up in two -parental household. Research also confirms that almost 30 percent of such children experiences domestic violence in their home for the past years. Nevertheless, half of these cases, reported severe violence in their household McDonald, et al (2006).However, spousal violence is more rampant in a household with children compare to those families without children, McDonald, et al (2006). In addition, research confirms that there is significant tendency for child abuse to occur 15 times in a household with domestic violence compares to households that has never experience violence (cited in Mills et al 2000), Also, reports shows that there is significant overlapping, i.e. 40% to 60% cases, between child maltreatment and DV (Garcia-Moreno 2002, cited in Women’s Health Council (2007). Public documents and statements like the yearbook of the Children's Defence Fund; the report of the U.S Attorney General's Task Force on Domestic Violence; Children acts; and the National Crime Victimization Survey conducted by the National Institute of Justice; failed to give high priority to the debate on the wellbeing of children witnessing DV. Earlier studies on DV are viewed as inconsequential or unimportant by researchers and policy makers. This is because it lacks concrete and reliable data particular, the scope and nature of difficulties linked with the incident. Though, research confirms the need for professionals to know more about the subject, it was obvious that most youngsters live in a family of abused mothers.
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