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Wissenschaftliche Studie, 2012
1. An intercultural Management Toolbox
2. The Achievement of Total Intercultural Synergy
3. The Technical Terminology of Intercultural Communication and Management: An English Language Transcultural Dictionary
(1) The ORJI Model (Ed Schein) – Observation-Emotional Response-Judgement-Initiative - highlights the importance of continuous checking and questioning routines in intercultural encounters in order to effectively manage intrapsychic processes.
(2) The MIS (misperception-misinterpretation-misevaluation) Factor Process (N. Adler) highlights the culture contingency of perception and how it is processed. Empathy and cybernetic thinking to manage the diverse perceptual cultural filters are helpful.
(3) The PIE (perception-interpretation-evaluation) Metaphor highlights the need that the various phases of the intrapsychic process management in the intercultural interfacing process must be kept apart.
The integration of items 1-3 is visualized in a multi-model on the following page.
The application of all instruments can be greatly enhanced if they are correlated to what has been shown in other chapters. They are to be contextualized in a superordinate understanding of culture with all-integrative impact, i.e. the inter-transcultural complementarity that underpins a metaphorical “quantum cultural effect”.
Culture and Self: Multi-Modelling Intrapsychic Processes
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(4) The aggregate models of culture (ex. Hofstede) highlight the fact that there is a cultural pre-programming. This knowledge allows predicting and adapting to attitudes, values and behaviours if used flexibly and accounting for variances.
(5) Dilemma theory (Adler and Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner) highlights the possibility of creating synergies from conflicting values based on the multi-step process for dilemma resolution of these authors.
(6) The interpretivist paradigm or the negotiated culture approach (Brannen and Salk) highlights the assumption that aggregate models of culture as those of Hofstede and Trompenaars and Hampden Turner have limited predictive power as cultures are normal distributions, prototypes rather than stereotypes. This differentiation and additionally accounting for a maximum amount of contextual variables allows a dynamic approach to the management of emergent organizational cultures.
(7) Fusion: This strategy allows for the simultaneous existence of more than one cultural approach with the benefit that one may provide initially unsuspected feedback and a complement to the other. - But Fusion can also be understood as a return to the source of life, where neither time nor space, nor thought nor person A nor person B, everything and nothing, exist. Here culture and its barriers do not arise. Cultural differences may at times be perceived as increasing interpersonal distance and thereby creating an additional obstacle to the deep-rooted need of fusion, of oneness with life itself. The awareness of the relevance of fusion may in some instances defuse culturally induced confusion... Though it may seem necessary at times to create distance, an ultimate Christian rationale also is Unity: ”Ut unum sint”, Christ Himself says to God the Father: “That all of them may be one, Father, just as you are in me and I am in you.. .“ (John 17 : 21). Integral individuals mystically one?
(8) When in Rome do as the Romans do. This is a more general approach and adage which does not stick rigidly to the home culture, while the next approach number 9 places great store on the home culture while it borrows useful elements of target cultural environment.
(9) Cross-fertilization: Builds on the biological principle of adaptation for survival. In this sense a globalizing corporation may adopt some of the DNA of another culture to navigate challenging phases and environments.
(10)To the Greek become a Greek. This is the precept of Saint Paul, a Christian approach, which can be said to be the royal path to winning people’s hearts and minds.
(11)In-depth understanding that literally sees through the game of culture in the sense that in certain cases each culture positions itself as the absolute and thereby relativizes the other culture and frequently expects her to pay the cost of the interfacing process.
(12)The art of seeing. Choiceless awareness (J. Krishnamurti). It complements cognitive seeing through a situation or someone by the art of pure perception with its own mental hygiene and power.
(13)Consciousness evolution and cultural development diagnostic (Dr. Th. Brosse and M. Bennett). See Evolution Profile in the Transcultural Management Profiler. The human evolution and the intercultural development stages allow a quick diagnostic as to the possible range of attitudes values and behaviours.
(14)Transcultural or noetic intelligence. This approach is based on the highest functions of a threefold hierarchical holistic architecture of man; from bottom to top: (1) the somatic, (2) the psychic and (3) the noetic. This three-level architecture of man features a top to bottom integration and control logic. Cultural conditioning is stored in the psychic level, the mind. Based on the neurophysiologic hierarchical integration and control principle, the noetic or transcultural level integrates the mental or cultural level.
(15)Culture is all about experiencing relationships - with oneself, others, the visible and the invisible environment -. Consider whether culture is used as a pretext to feed greed in relationships. How much culture does the (healthy) self and selflessness require? Culture can be strongly relativized by the self: from fundamentalism to quantité négligeable.
(16)Strive to establish your identity, physical as well as metaphysical, through true (self-) knowledge, which enfolds and transcends cultural conditioning, as taught by the world’s traditions and expressed in Greek as “Gnothi seauton”, in Latin as “Nosce te ipsum”, in Sanskrit as “Vidya”, in the Christian tradition, the epistles of St. Paul contain informative metaphors about the nature of man and his relationship with his fellow man and the divine. Self-awareness training in western management education is a step in this direction.
(17)Ascertain the guiding cultural metaphor. Metaphors tend to subtly shape cultural patterns: Find out what metaphor best subsumes values, attitudes and behaviours in a culture. The sports metaphor, for example, with its emphasis on speed, individual competition and the quest for being number one seems to be the overriding motive that is replicated in the various social subsystems in America, the household and family metaphor is a forma mentis, which represents an attitudinal and behavioural leitmotif in parts of Asia, where Confucian ethics hold that the “family is the prototype of all social organization“ and therefore emphasizes harmony, hierarchy and tradeoffs between seniors and juniors. The symphony orchestra metaphor seems to be a subtly governing motive of German culture which highlights a need for order and direction as displayed in a conductor who orchestrates a synergistic collective effort.
(18)Organisational behaviour metaphors: The above metaphors can be correlated to another set of empirically derived organisational behaviour metaphors, referred to as implicit organisational models by intercultural scholars, such as the village market for Anglo and Nordic cultures which emphasizes a pattern of individual achievement along with weak formalization. Germanic cultures highlight the culturally distinctive feature of formalized order, the Human Pyramid highlights the distinctive feature of authority residing in the leader and in formal rules as in Latin countries and last but not least, the Tribal or Family metaphor highlights the centralisation of power at the top.
(19)Cultivate a spirit of learning! Man is endowed with great freedom, which may challenge any predictions.
(20) Quantum-optical culture consciousness (neologism) which permits complementary vistas of culture and provides a more complete perception of cultural issues and therefore greater effectiveness in its management. (See quantum cultural approach to international diversity management by the author of this exposé)
(21) S. Ting-Toomey, G. Hofstede, E. Marx and R. Brislin and others provide valuable research on the entire expatriation-repatriation cycles from many angles to support intercultural transfers and transitions.
(22) M. Bennett’s IDM or intercultural development model models and describes the phases and stages of intercultural sensitivity development; by three ethnocentric stages followed by three ethnorelative stages.
(23) CAGE Analysis by P. Ghemawat (Harvard Business Review) provides a differentiated model for distance analysis to support international decision making. This distance model distinguishes cultural (C), administrative, geographic and economic distance to provide a more precise notion of distance.
(Here follow a few concepts in German in order to apply complementary linguistic approaches to create a wider space of mind and consciousness conducive to enhanced intercultural perception.)
(24) Die transkulturelle Lingua Franca
(25) Naturwissenschaftliche, als Metaphern verwendete Prinzipen aus den Bereichen der Quantenphysik, der Mikrobiologie, der Neurophysiologie u. der Kybernetik etc., die das Verständnis des Managements des Kulturellen erschließen:
1- Das Komplementaritätsprinzip Niels Bohrs
2- Die Heisenbergsche Unschärferelation
3- Die Doppelhelix der DNA
4- Das neurophysiologische Prinzip der funktionellen Subordination
5- Das neurophysiologische Prinzip der strukturellen Integration
6- Die psychosomatische Dualität
7- Die ganzheitliche dreifältige noetisch-psycho-somatische Struktur des Menschen
8- Das Dao der Kultur
9- Die quantenkulturelle Axiomatik und der quantenkulturelle Effekt
1-. Der transkulturelle Autopilot
11- Inter-transkulturelle Energetik: Potentialisierungs- Aktualisierungsdynamismus
12- Das Involutions-Evolutionsprinzip
(26) Die transkulturelle Lingua Franca
(27) Vidya (Sanskrit für Wissen), Gnothi seauton (Griechisch für Selbsterkenntnis), Nosce te ipsum (Latein für Selbsterkenntnis), self-awareness (Englisch für Selbstbewusstheit); während die Phasen Bewusstsein – Wissen – Kompetenzen den klassischen Algorithmus des interkulturellen Kompetenzerwerbs bilden, geht der transkulturelle Managementkompetenzerwerb von einer höheren Spiralwindung interkultureller Selbstbewusstheit und Erkenntnis, einer höheren Form des Bewusstseins und der Erkenntnis der Wahrheit als Bedingung für den transkulturellen Kompetenzerwerb und der transkulturellen Intelligenz aus. Im Fernen Osten sind das japanische Hishiryo Konzept, das chinesische Wuwei, sowie das indische Konzept des Bewusstseins-Zeugen gleichermaßen kulturübergreifende erkenntnistheoretische Wegweiser hin zu einer transkulturellen Dimension.
(28) „Por debajo de todo nuestro edificio está la libertad“: Diese Formel der spanischen Sartre-Schülerin Gloria Quevedo bedeutet: Unter unserem gesamten Gebäude befindet sich die Freiheit. Im Bewusstsein dieser Erkenntnis gelangt man auch zur transkulturellen Intelligenz. Die Spitze und die Basis des transkulturellen Pofiler Gebäudes gründen gleichermaßen in einem konditionierungsfreien Raum des Bewusstseins, der das gesamte kulturelle Gebäude trägt.
(29) Das Gebot der Liebe (caritas, agape) als Panaceum aller menschlichen Beziehungen.
(30) „Vor c'est faire“ ein französisches Sprichwort, identisch mit Krishnamurtis Dictum "Seeing is doing", in der Bedeutung von Sehen ist Handeln kann mit Hilfe der Komplementaritätsprinzip Metapher als quantenkultureller Effekt (im übertragenen Sinn) übersetzt werden und zwar in dem Sinn, dass die Positionierung im Bewusstsein des Subjekts aktives Handeln im Kontext des Kulturmanagements ist, in Anlehnung an die Bedingtheit des Wahrgenommenen durch das wahrnehmende Subjekt. …Der Wellendetektor erkennt Wellen, wo der Teilchendetektor Teilchen erkennt… Das transkulturelle Bewusstsein erkennt Einheit, wo das interkulturelle Diversität erkennt und somit per se integrativ wirkt. Beide sind bewusstseinsrelative komplementäre Aspekte der Wirklichkeit insgesamt, ebenso wie die Welle-Teilchen Dualität.
(31) 1. Die subjektive Integration des inter-transkulturellen Bewusstseinsraumes tendiert dazu, das kulturelle Umfeld zu integrieren.
2. Die subjektive Spaltung des inter-transkulturellen Bewusstseinsraumes tendiert dazu, das kulturelle Umfeld zu spalten.
(die von mir auf der Basis meines transkulturellen 5P - Philosophie-Physik-Psychologie-Managementansatz - Managementansatzes entwickelte metaphorische quantenkulturelle Formel, die die Qualität des Bewusstseins im hier detaillierten Sinn als Schlüsselvariable allen nachhaltigen Kulturmanagements betrachtet.
(alle naturwissenschaftlichen Axiome werden als Sinnbilder und Metaphern Kulturmanagement-didaktisch eingesetzt)
(32) The perceptual relativity assumption of cultural diversity or the „there is no diversity of culture, there is a diversity of perception” hypothesis.
N o cultural diversity but rather a perceptual diversity :
THERE IS NO CULTURAL DIVERSITY
THERE IS, HOWEVER, A DIVERSITY OF THE DEPTH OF PERCEPTION OF EXISTENCE!
The experience of diversity arises as a consequence of a lopsided perception that ignores or refuses to perceive the wholeness of existence referred to metaphorically as the cultural complementarity principle of unity and diversity that has an inkling of the integrality and integrity of creation. The cultural spell under which the world presently is appears therefore as a consequence of perception that is a culture consciousness with limited awareness. Culture seen as such is an act of consciousness. And the type of culture consciousness a player has cocreates the cultural reality within and around him.
From there one may even infer that culture being an act of consciousness based on perception and awareness it cannot be conceived of apart from the human dimension of consciousness. The cultural discourse that fills libraries and the pockets of culture gurus and the lecture halls of universities alike is based on a culture paradigm that cannot have any permanence and sustainable impact on globalization. If it is not enhanced and complemented it can mislead the whole world as fascism and communism have misled the millions and the masses until they were put in their true context and understood more fully. If culture that some assume holds the place of these worldviews and errors of the past at present is not put in its true context likewise it may have the same impact and destiny as those cultural errors. Therefore the present cultural paradigm imperatively requires the correction and completion of its edifice, which is the purpose of the inquiry.
This epistemological perception of culture and cultural diversity does not altogether eclipse the practical value of cultural diversity. The first is helpful in cultural problem solving, the second for evolving. Its dialectics help the world to grow and develop based on the dialectics of diversity. When that causes problems the complementary epistemological perception of culture can be used as a cultural problem solver. So the epistemological and the pragmatic standpoint are the complementary aspects of a culture theory and management practice in accordance with man and his needs. And it does neither sacrifice uniqueness to a heresy of an irenology of misconstrued equality, nor unity to unbridgeable diversity.
(33) The Transcultural Profiler Model: a universal model of culture management.
THE TRANSCULTURAL PROFILER
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The τ (TAU)-Model of Culture for Global Culture Management
Awareness - Knowledge - Skills - Practice
2. The Achievement of
Total Intercultural Synergy
The dawn of a global civilization presupposes the waning of the dark clouds of the culture wars of the 20th century and the mindsets that have been thinking from the background of this century. A more global civilisation needs a radically new approach. Optimizing old approaches still amounts to old approaches, however improved, with consequences that can only be different in degrees with regard to their capacity of generating cultural problems. We are prolonging the past indefinitely in myriad variations. We haven’t been able to identify and successfully implement a kind of master control software that allows us to successfully manage our mental software. This is the master dilemma of which intercultural dilemmas are but mirror reflections at lower levels. Like Don Quijote, we create and fight our dilemmas ourselves heroically, ‘with unbearable sorrow, going where the brave dare not go, dream the impossible dream, this is my quest’ (Cervantes, Don Quijote). The moment we realize that there is a master dilemma, which creates myriads of sub-dilemmas, we see a new possibility, one of realizing our seemingly impossible dream. The dilemma is that we are conditioned in myriad ways and that this conditioning, which has taken place in our lifetime and probably beyond, determines our actions, attitudes and behaviours. So, conditioning and time are elements of concern here. Instead of liberating us from this conditioning, cultural categorizations have cemented us into straitjackets of mental programming, which we act out mindlessly. So, the programming of the mind has become utter mindlessness, while freedom is rationalized by the automation of our being. The programming goes on in ever more sophisticated ways. Does this have a future? It has brought us some awareness and models. So far, so good. The entire intercultural approach pertains to a time and a mind, which is the product of that time, which flow in to the future, reproducing the same mind-product-of-time. Part of the master dilemma is that this conditioning is perpetuated, however sophisticated. It applies to the researcher as well as to the researched. They partake in the same mechanism, ever recreating the dilemma. Yet, what we need more of is not recreation but creation. This is our cre-do. The new (creation) presupposes the dream, the perception of the possibility, the belief in it, the hope of its attainment, then the daring heroism of a quixotic mindset. If we master the master dilemma, dilemma doctors will be rationalized by this new epistemological ‘technology’. Presently they need the conditioning, which creates the dilemmas, in order to solve them, to make a living of it. The moment you master this root problem, there is less need for masters nor slaves nor dilemmas nor dilemma doctors.
Is this awareness feasible and operational? Self-interest and celebration of that self (academically and monetarily) are their value preference rather than helping mankind ahead on the road of evolution. No wonder, most of them are from high IDV cultures. They are creating new dimensions of difference, more divisive factors, competing for new, smarter ones among them. But what about the master dimension, that which manifests the sub-dimensions? Is there one and is it possible to manage it in a way that puts the dimensions of cultural difference in a radically new light, transcending them at will, enabling us to put them on and off, inclusive of their reconciliations and synergies? The present approach is largely horizontal: thinking in cultures, their empirically identified value preferences and the optimum interfacing thereof. These fairly fixed categories are comparable to Newtonian physics categories. The vertical dimension approach to be added is the level of conscious evolution. At the intersection of the horizontal and the vertical there, at this centre lies the quintessentially new approach. Simply a shift of focus to incorporate the observer or conscious entity behind the mind, as the quantum physicists since Heisenberg and Schrödinger have been envisaging in the first part of the previous century. Can we afford to exclude what the hard scientists have been envisaging over hundred years ago and which enabled space age? Can an analogous process in our area of concern enable the space age consciousness corollary, the global transcultural civilisation? The new coexists with, encompasses and simply transcends the old. No destruction, just tapping into a new resource, a higher order of things. The master dilemma is that of conditioning, the mind as a storehouse of it and time versus deconditioning or transcending conditioning to leverage consciousness as a whole instead of the myriad fragments of the sum total of our learning and socialization. Conditioning versus deconditioning, psychological consciousness versus pure consciousness. Time versus freedom of time and therefore mental programming versus mental deprogramming are road sign dimensions which point to a substantial reality that escapes conceptual terminology, for the mind with its mental programming, the time, memory, language storehouse is one horn of the master dilemma to be integrated at a new level. Integrating the observer, the observation and the observed, this is the challenge. Whether this is possible and what its potentialities are will be looked at cross-culturally, in order to see how various civilisations across the ages have approached this question. We are postulating a reality that, transcending words and concepts, governs the dimensions - like a master key unlocking all doors of our mental edifice - we are trying to reconcile as well as the potential synergies. We are not projecting an illusory magic quid, a miraculous compensation of our dire human condition of intercultural strive - a fairy tale cloud cuckoo land -, but we are investigating a biological reality of the mind which has been investigated by select adepts and elites of East and West, science and philosophy of all civilisations across the ages. Finding out whether such a master key exists and how it can fit intercultural research will be the prime quest here and now. In order to investigate this question we want to undertake a journey across cultures, ages and civilisations, in order to find out whether across the millennia there are supporting elements of our hypothesis. The new intercultural edifice we envisage must rest on an incorruptible foundation, with as many supporting pillars as possible, which mutually validate and consolidate each other to provide a rock solid base for further research. It must reflect the truth, have universal validity, appeal and operationality. Each reader must decide whether he has the solidity to travel a road of the mind of another culture or whether he prefers to wait until the new insight is translated in the categories of his native culture by the quixotic heroes, for we must, though it may sound contradictory, have a sound foundation in the best of our own culture, before we can add on what we envisage, before we can transcend cultural programming.
Let us first turn our eyes towards the cradle of Western Civilisation, which is Greece. Non-Aristotelian thinking has become much en vogue. On the one hand Aristotelian thinking seems to be considered too static (‘opposites in the same space mutually excluding each other’) to allow higher frequency dynamics of successful reconciliation. On the other hand, however, it provides the notion of a trinitary hierarchical structure of man, the noetico-psycho-somatic triad. The second level, the psychological level is the repository of our mental software, or collective mental programming. The psychological structure contains the mind, time, the sum total of our conditioning. The third level of the triad the noetic, from the Greek NOUS, beyond the repository of learning, socialization and conditioning as a whole, seems to be of pristine, unalloyed, universal nature, and, as we will see in the neurophysiologic approach, it has the power of control over the subjacent level, the psychological which in turn governs the somatic level. We are in the presence of a hierarchical top-bottom control system. Yet, if we ignore or are unable to activate the noetic level of the integrated hierarchical triad, which has the power of control of the psychological level, the latter cannot be adequately managed, which means, it runs wild. As it is the repository of our mental software we needn’t be surprised if it is dysfunctional. So, over 2000 years ago, Ancient Greece knew a holistic, threefold noetico-psycho-somatic structural concept of man, which in our days has gone out of fashion, so to speak. Is it connected to its unique cultural performance of laying the foundation of Western Civilisation? By returning to the roots and the cradle of our Western Civilisation we can resource us and see whether we can leverage this superordinate level to the psychological, mental level, which is assumed to have the prerogative of the power of control over the subjacent levels and therefore of the entire repository of our cultural conditioning.
If we turn our eyes further East and deeper in the past, to the Ancient Indian Civilisation, we notice, that it considers the mind as material as opposed to the immateriality assumption of Western psychology and that it has a few thousand years of exploration of the inner cosmos of man with results that fill libraries and cannot be dealt with in our specific inquiry into an enhanced culture management principle. However, in our search for another structural element of our new edifice of an intercultural metascience we encounter a concept, which is that of the ‘consciousness witness’ and which is considered one of the greatest contributions of India to Human Civilisation. Consciousness-witness, similar to the ‘Nous’ or noetic level of Ancient Greece, refers to a level of consciousness beyond the mental structure and functions we are conversant with, which is pure consciousness, choiceless awareness, perception, unalloyed by the mental and emotional ups and downs, the incessant movements of the mind. Various systems of yoga are trying to access and leverage this level of our holistic biological consciousness-mind-body structure to enhance mental and physical structure and functioning.
Turning our attention now to Ancient China, we are aware, that, here again, intercultural research frequently refers to Confucianism as the explanatory variable of Chinese culture and management. In addition to Confucian dynamism, there is less reference to Lao Tzu’s ‘hyperdynamism’, if one may use this term, the underlying dynamism of the entire world. Lao Tzu, in his Tao Te Ching advocates a mindset, which translates into Western languages as ‘Not Doing’ which is the very opposite of doing nothing, because, according to Taoism, ‘not doing does everything’. It refers to a mindset, which witnesses life in a non-interfering way. Tapping this higher level of the biology of the psychophysical structure of man supposedly creates order of the highest possible kind. What comes here to one’s mind is the assumption of intercultural management research, that the descriptive international managerial mindsets are more effective than the judgmental ones.
Further East, even in the Land of the Rising Sun culture we can trace this hypermental dimension of consciousness, which underlies Budo and Zen. It has been expounded by Takuan in ‘Fudochi Dhinmyo Roku’, which translates as ‘The Secret of Unmoved Wisdom’. Poetry describes this mindset as the image of the moon on the water, the mirror image of the moon does not move. According to this practical philosophy, the nature of our spirit, of our self is like the mirror image of the moon on the water the moving flow of our thoughts. If one doesn’t cling to the thoughts, letting them go, the nature of the spirit becomes ‘fudo’, that is without movement: ‘Hishiryo’. This secure anchor transcends mental programming, unburdened by conditioning.
Whether the ‘Nous’, the ‘Consciousness Witness’, ‘Non-doing’ or ‘Hishiryo’, they all are levels of awareness above our habitual awareness, governing the levels below. Culture, mental conditioning being contained in the subordinate mental level, cultural phenomena are also governed by the superordinate level identified by different cultures and framed and derived differently according to the cultural background. Thus we have found a key to culture, to cultural conditioning, a central hub, on which the philosophies and psychologies of major civilisations converge unanimously. The central hub, that on which all mental programming hinges, this door of a new perception of culture, we are unlocking now.
The millennia old cradles of civilisations from where such notions originate, which correspond to a more inner-oriented science of man, have to be tested by the criteria of more outer-oriented Western sciences: Neurophysiology and microphysics will be considered here, before we reconcile East and West by the philosophy of a sage who bridges East and West:
As soon as in the early twentieth century neurophysiologists like Madame and Louis Lapique (Ramón y Cajal, Sherrington) have researched the law of functional subordination, meaning essentially, that higher centres of the hierarchical structure of the human nervous system control lower ones. The French cardiologist Dr. Thérèse Brosse (Brosse, T (1984). La Conscience-Energie. Structure de l'Homme et de l'Univers. Ses implications scientifiques, sociales et spirituelles. Editions Présence. Sisteron. ISBN 2-901696-15-5) has conducted 50 years of related research in East and West. Psychosomatic research tells us that the state of mind has the power to influence cardiac, respiratory and other rates that are usually measured in diagnostic medicine. However, if the psychological level controls the somatic, what entity subordinates, controls, integrates and normalizes the psychological level. Here, Western psychology ends, as it reasons in a dualistic psychosomatic mode only, although a healthy psychological functioning would imply a superordinate function, capable of subordinating and integrating the psychological level, the highest in the Western dualistic conception of man. Neurophysiology points to the presence of and a need for a third level, an extension of the dualist psychosomatic structure of man to an enhanced threefold structure, which we could trace in the major civilisations of the world spanning nearly ten millennia. It is this level of our human constitution which is termed in different ways by different cultures. Factually a type of pure consciousness as opposed to a conditioned personal consciousness is the nature of that entity which we have been tracing successfully in Eastern cultures, confirmed and validated by the law of functional subordination, which has the normalizing, integrating function in the constitution of man. The hiatus between physiology and psychology can be bridged as in the Japanese assumption, where physiological and mental immobility are necessarily concomitant.
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Referat / Aufsatz (Schule), 3 Seiten
Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 30 Seiten
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Diplomarbeit, 117 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 15 Seiten
Studienarbeit, 28 Seiten
Essay, 27 Seiten
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