Für neue Autoren:
kostenlos, einfach und schnell
Für bereits registrierte Autoren
Art, Science and Technique of 3-D Intercultural Management
I. The ART of Ethical Unity in Myriad Diversity
1. Reconciling Planetary Diversity through Transcultural Management
2. The Third Millennium Global Civilisation Formula: Integrating the Relative and the Absolute 17
3. The Magic of the ONE: The One as the Regulator of Unity And Diversity
4. Summum Unum: The Diversity Of Life
5. Ut Unum Sint
II. The SCIENCE of Intercultural Management
1. The Resolution of the Timeless Dilemma of Peace Building: “Si vis pacem para bellum” versus “Si vis pacem para pacem”
2. Review and Upgrade of the Intercultural Paradigm:
2.1 The State-of-the-Art of the Intercultural Art and Science: On Human Relativity In Intercultural Research
2.2 Enhancing the Intercultural Art and Science: Sources, Models and the Achievement of True Cultural Intelligence
III. Some APPLICATIONS of the enhanced cultural paradigm
1. The Dawn of an Intercultural Metascience. An Epistemological Blueprint for 360° Synergy
2. Global Culture Systems Analysis. Sustainability and Accountability
3. Transnational Management
4. Global Negotiatons Management
5. The Conquest of Transcultural Intelligence
IV. TECHNIQUES of Intercultural Management
Synopsis of Intercultural and transcultural Management Instruments
3 D Inter- und Transkulturelles Management der Integration des Schöpfers, der Schöpfung und der Diversität des Menschen
3 D Integrity of Creation: Of Creator, Creation and Creatures.
A Die Integrität der Schöpfung
1. Kulturelle Identität und Ethik im Kontext der Integrität der Schöpfung
B. Fundamente und Grundlagen der Kultur
1. Die Kultur und die Schöpfungsordnung
C. Das religiöse Bewusstsein als einheitsstiftendes Prinzip der Menschheit
1. Menschliche Defizite hinsichtlich der komplementären Erkenntnis der Einheit und der Diversität:
Auf der individuellen Ebene
Auf der kollektiven Ebene
2. Grundlagen und Weg der Einheit
D. Metaphysik und Kultur
1. Der Primat Gottes
2. Die biologische, die psychologische und die geistige Natur ganzheitlicher menschlicher Kultur
Bilingual Intercultural & Transcultural Management Terminology: English-German
Bilinguales Englisch-Deutsches Interkulturelles/Transkulturelles Management Wörterbuch
Interkulturelles- u. Transkulturelles Management (German)
Intercultural &Transcultural Management (English)
Gestion Interculturelle et Gestion Transculturelle (French)
Gerencia Intercultural y Gerencia Transcultural (Spanish)
Gerência Intercultural e Gerência Transcultural (Portuguese)
跨文化的智慧精髓 - kua wen hua de zhi hui jing sui (Chinese)
транскультурная компетенция - transkulturnaja
toransukaruchā ・ manējimento (Japanese)
トランスカルチャー ・ マネジメント
Vishua Chaytana (Sanskrit)
ZAKAA AL-TA'ALOF AL-THAQAFEE (Arabic)
WESTERN SYNERGY EASTERN
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Source. The Universe; Wikipedia.
The universe is the sum total of all existence as far as we know it. It is part of the integral Creation with a Creator that exceeds conceptualization. Cosmos which means order integrates all. Order, that of physics and that of consciousness, are part of the overall order. A key governing principle of it is that of hierarchical integration in both universes, the material and that of consciousness.
As our planet earth is positioned in a cosmic order, so does the planet itself need its order to survive. A physical cosmological hierarchical order, where the sun is the key to life in our planetary system maintains life of the system as a whole. Order within and between hierarchical levels characterize the physical universe as a whole. The human, the physical as well as the consciousness cosmology are part of the totality of the universe. The Ancients have understood this principle and called it cosmos which means order. It is a hierarchical order, where the sun presides over the physical order in our solar system which in turn is hierarchically integrated in a galactic and those in turn in vaster systems. The various inner and outer cosmologies are part of the one life with its material and immaterial aspects and integrated, interdependent, hierarchical and synergistic order characterize it. This quality of order reigns between and within macro- and microcosmic planes. The continuity of them ensures the continuity of life. The biological, the physical and the consciousness cosmologies are diverse aspects of existence of life as a whole.
In order to ensure the integrity of the planetary cosmology with its physical, biological and consciousness components cosmic order needs to be maintained. In order to ensure microcultural order the macrocultural planetary system needs to be understood, for based on the principle of hierarchical integration, there can be no planetary intracultural order unless the planetary cultural order is established. The transcultural order which encompasses the totality of cultures has, in line with cosmological principles, an integrative function for the diversity of cultures. The transcultural order of the macro-system as a natural hierarchical integrator of the cultural micro-systems needs to be ensured and operationalized so as to naturally lead to planetary cultural order at the various local, regional, national and global cultural levels.
Therefore it is useful to look at the macrocultural order of the planet as in the north-south-east-west diagram with the transcultural synergy principle at its quintessential center that integrates the four cardinal directions. That transcultural principle is the psychological sun comparable to the sun of the solar system. Both ensure the viability of their respective systems, of the physical or the consciousness cosmos. The sun of the psychological cosmos can be called the cosmic, noetic or transcultural dimension. It is modeled in the top levels of the transcultural profiler below. They integrate the entire human cultural universe based on the principle of hierarchical control and integration. Profiler levels ethics and evolution lead to the sun of the universe of consciousness which enlightens the human spirit so as to naturally integrate planetary cultural diversity. The noetic or transcultural level of the profiler provides the key to all planes of the planetary cultural system. It is represented in the following.
THE TRANSCULTURAL PROFILER
DOME 12 D TRANSCULTURAL MANAGEMENT MODEL
illustration not visible in this excerpt
A SHORT EXPLANATION OF THE 12
TRANSCULTURAL PROFILER LEVELS
The absolute of consciousness silences all cultural relativities. It is the superquantic dimension of the source - timeless, nameless, and absolute; beyond the mind and the diverse aspects of matter and energy. It integrates the aspects of the real in a transcendent reality.
The unitary structure of the lantern in the DOME architectural metaphor symbolizes that singular unity; the highest level of integration.
Is the transcultural level that presides over the quantum optical consciousness and has three major characteristics:
It integrates the totality of the subjacent edifice.
It can alternatively work with intercultural consciousness which deals with the diversity of cultures and it can work with transcultural consciousness, i.e. diversity transcending unity.
In the cupola (and lantern) the twelve arcs of the DOME architectural modeling of the psychological edifice converge. Here the intercultural diversity and transcultural unity are bridged.
Translates the superquantic and the quantic culture consciousness into the cultural dimensions of the edifice rather than sufficing itself in its transcendence and remaining aloof. In physical terms it can be considered as an energetic potentialization-actualization dynamism leading to the cycle: Consciousness- energy-waves-values-behaviors.
Ethics is a stepping stone that enables access to the consciousness of the superordinate dimensions. Personal egoism corresponds to cultural ethnocentrism. Both need to be managed for growth into the transcultural dimension. The relative particle must become aware of its being part of a dynamic of an interdependent field and become committed to and accountable for it. Ethics is a cardinal dimension on which any further evolution hinges. They are interdependent and ethical attitudes and behaviours in the sense of the unconditional respect of any culture member are the sine qua non of viable interpersonal and intergroup relations. Love of God and fellow man is the fulfillment of ethics, of the entire law according to the Christian optic. It can unlock all doors and remove all barriers on the way to all encompassing consciousness. The absence of this dimensional virtue is the negation of human culture and civilization in the original sense and poisons all relationships, interindividual, intergroup and intercultural.
Diagnoses the phylogenic and the inter-/transcultural evolution of the cultural players. They are progressive enablers of superordinate cultural capabilities. As the cultural player masters the two sets of evolution completely transcultural as opposed to intercultural consciousness unfolds. Upon reaching the universal stage of phylogenetic evolution the threshold to the superior dimension can be crossed.
D6 ICP Individual Culture profile
The specification of the cultural players’ individual cultural profile impacts the potential for the achievement of higher dimensions of culture consciousness. The various affiliations/layers can pave the way or impede (culture) consciousness evolution.
D7 NCP National Culture Profile
The aggregate models of culture consist of 12 dualistic dimensions and illustrate the dialectics of the cultural mind. It is the realm of dualistic culture consciousness: the domain of time, mind, conditioning and antagonism; of cultural strife. The dialectics of its structural duality can be sustainably redeemed by the non-dualistic levels of consciousness, which merge the cultural waves into their source or the destination of the ocean and form but a circle. The intercultural optic of the quantum cultural optic is only aware of the momentary manifestation of consciousness without contextualizing it in the totality of the field of consciousness which redeems the waves of culture in the ocean of consciousness with its integrative and renewing dynamic; its creativity.
D8 Communications Profile
While the previous 2 dimensions are important structural elements, which is insinuated by the architectural term “shoulders” - they provide structural information about a person or/and an edifice -, the communication styles dimension can structurally be connected to walls and windows, which allow us to build up barriers or to create relationships and permeability with regard to the environment. Cultural diversity of communication styles is culture consciousness in inter(action). According to Hall culture is communication. Here we additionally conceptualize it, based on the quantum cultural optic as waves which translate as the music of consciousness resulting behaviorally as communication styles preferences.
D9 Corporate Management Profile
The organizational cultural environment grounds management in a combination of physical and psychological culture imperatives which determine horizons of managerial and HR consciousness in addition to the three other more general cultural profiles. They determine corporate consciousness, corporate culture consciousness. Corporate culture consciousness, societal culture consciousness, individual culture consciousness and transcultural consciousness will have to result in a powerful accord in musical terms and need to be based on a good foundation, if the company is to perform well; a blending of the organizational cultural, the intercultural and the transcultural, integrated by the latter.
D10 Intercultural management competencies
As an individual professional intercultural profile they complete the individual and other culture profiles and contribute to enhancing the accord between diverse cultural players in terms of business interests.
Trust being the basis of all human relations it is as critical a dimension as the ethics dimension, intraindividually and interindividually. I can harmoniously tune relationships between diverse cultural players and foster a spirit of cooperation.
D12 Planetary interface
Physical culture and global governance variables constitute the interface with the global environment. The various levels of global consciousness evolution will impact choices.
INTEGRATING THE RELATIVE AND THE ABSOLUTE
The sea of live is in perpetual change and movement. There never is a standstill. Man tries to find a quiet point, a harbour, in the vastness of the ocean. The more he tries the more waves he creates which in turn increase the turbulences he seeks to escape. This is so because it is the nature of the ocean to be in movement and perpetual change.
Culture is a means whereby man hopes to create a form of stability on the sea of life. Yet, the more he affirms his culture in order to increase his psychological security, the more cultural waves he creates which unsettle the desired stability, because the cultural waves he creates through the affirmation of his own culture sets in motion cycles of waves of culture. They may become powerful waves which can threaten life in the entire field of the ocean as well as on land: the culture clashes and wars.
This means that the solution to cultural problems is unattainable through cultural means alone. It is their very nature to set in motion the waves of culture. They can only be stopped if he sees that that by which he tries to solve the cultural challenge actually tends to create the problem. If the problem cannot be solved sustainably at its own level, the solution must come from somewhere else, if there is any solution at all.
This is so, because culture is part of the mind and the very nature of the mind is to trigger waves which in turn create cycles of waves. The waves sometimes become tidal waves and destructive.
Similarly, the cultural identification sets in motion cycles of competitive identifications, self-perpetuating and never ending dualistic loops which, depending on their intensity, may escalate into major conflict unless the waves created by cultural identification and affirmation can subside. Once the cycles of waves are set in motion they assume a dynamic of their own beyond human control. That is how conflicts surge cyclically and somtimes get out of hand once cycles have been set in motion through the over-affirmation of one or more cultural players. They can set in motion the entire see of life. Ironically, the search for stability on the ocean of life, which has a natural dynamic of its own, leads to the very opposite, to major turbulences.
If that which one seeks turns into its opposite by virtue of its very search one has to look into another direction to find that which one seeks; seeking to achieve it in a non-counterproductive way. If the goal becomes elusive the more one tries to attain it one has to examine whether and why the search does not yield the expected result.
The answer is based on the dualistic nature of the mind which contains culture. Any mouvement creates pendulum-like a similarly strong reaction. The resulting instability is greater than the initial instability which one thought to further stabilize and consolidate. So, one might have been better off, if one had not started to set in motion the cultural game of action and reaction. This would have required the insight into the consequences of cultural self-affirmation, which in turn requires the understanding of the cycle of events an attitude or act such as cultural over-affirmation may trigger.
If whatever one undertakes at the cultural level, which is the mental level, because the latter contains the former, can only inadequately lead to the desired stability one hopes to find in cultural self-affirmation - beyond the maintenance of imperative personal integrity -, if one sees that all action creates more problems one stops action and examines the situation:
First there was the intention of consolidation through cultural affirmation.
The action produced counterproductive results.
The observation of the cause and effect cycle explained the situation.
One drew the consequence to stop all action of that kind due to its counterproductive results.
Now one starts to seek in different directions to attain the goal on other routes.
All routes seem to tend to produce similarly counterproductive results.
One stops all action.
The situation improves.
One further examines why that is the way things are.
One concludes that all mental activities are dualistic and dialectical, also all cultural measures which are part of the mental realm and therefore follow the dialectical logic of the mind.
The cultural path or the mental approaches are no longer considered as offering any perspective of reaching a sustainable consolidation neither for oneself nor for others.
Therefore one distances oneself from the cultural and the mental logic. On the ocean of life, culture and the mind itself are the actual cause of instability.
Here one stops searching on the horizontal plane.
Now one enquires into the vertical plane by penetrating to the very depth of the matter.
If one penetrates deeper into culture and the mind towards the ocean bed one can find a stability which, however, is not necessarily permanent because nature knows no absolute stability in the long-term. The tectonic, hydraulic and atmospheric conditions do also impact the deeper layers of the ocean. So, wherever I turn within the known there is no sustainable solution to my search of a definitive harbour of peace and stability. There seems to be neither a solution within cultural measures nor within the reach of the mind as a whole. All solutions display experiential evidence of incomplete solutions. “All measures are non-measures…”, Zen partriarch Eno of the 9th century might comment.
Now one also stops the inquiry into the deepest recesses of the mind because they cannot offer the complete solution to my question of how to achieve sustainable identity and stability.
On further investigation of the vertical plane I realize that the more I let go of the mental and cultural search, the freer I feel from the weight of culture and the mind. On letting go the cultural and mental mooring I approach a degree of serenity and freedom which eluded me in my cultural-mental inquiry.
Progressively, a horizon of another shore dawns, I have never known before. As it takes shapeless shape, formless form, I follow the beacon of that shadowless light.
I resolve to dissolve my attachment to the shore of the known of the mind and set my compass on the beacon of the unknown shore. The relative, dualistic, changeable and insecure of this side vanishes as I absolve myself and loosen the ties of this shore of the incompleteness of the mind to approach the complete of the absoluteness of the other shore. As I position myself there the previous has no more impact on me. I feel free from it. Its relativity is at a distance. I perceive it as incomplete.
I have solved the dilemma by absolving myself from the limitation and incompleteness of the relative and by adopting the vantage point of the complete and absolute. The anchoring in this optic is fulfilling, complete: absolute. I try to anchor myself in this optic.
I am free from the constraints of culture and the waves it stirs. On this shore it has no sway on me. This freedom from culture is a state of freedom and liberty t foreshadowing a potential civilization of freedom. The waves of culture are no more. And this ushers in peace and serenity. Along with the waves of culture the waves of the mind have subsided. The ocean is still. The cultural and mental pursuits are still. In this stillness that which I hoped to find in vain through cultural means abounds.
To be systematic, the roadmap of rescue from the turbulences of the psycho-social, organisational and institutional environments of the ocean of life requires its complete understanding: The mental-cultural diversity clashes appear from horizon to horizon, horizontally. In order to understand it more completely one has to inquire vertically into its very depth and into the height. There the horizon widens so that two shores delineate themselves with their beacons. One is the beacon of the mind which by itself remains on the horizontal plane.
Suffering, learning and insight are the milestones of the roadmap towards the other shore. Its beacon illumes my search. On reaching it the entire field unfolds and I can see the totality of the sea of life in its true perspective. And it appears as follows:
One shore’s beacon illumines and leads to the other shore’s beacon illumines
The mental The spiritual
The cultural The universal
The temporal The atemporal
The relative The absolute
And I realize that without the two there is no ocean, no ocean of life. So, the two, the cultural and the universal, the mental and the metamental, time and atemporality, movement and stillness, dualism and peace are indissociable and part and parcel of life.
The light of the beacon of the left shore, however, throws a powerful shadow in whatever direction one turns, the beacon of the right shore is pure, shadowless light. The struggle in the domain of the left shore and the part of the ocean it directs is due to the dualistic nature of this light whose nature it is to produce a shadow. Its nature is to produce dualism and its dialectical struggle. But the integration of the shadow doesn’t either lead out of the realm of this beacon's light. The other shore’s beacon's pure light instructs an intelligence which transcends the left shore’s light and intelligence. It produces neither shadow, nor duality nor the resulting dialectical struggles.
The light of the right shore’s beacon’s intelligence outshines that of the left shore’s beacon’s, while the left shore’s beacon cannot outshine nor darken the right shore’s beacon’s intelligence.
On seeing and understanding the entire field of the ocean of life, man can, by positioning himself mentally, determine what shapes and forms the ocean takes. If he adopts the left hand side perspective he produces the left hand qualities on the ocean of life, if he adopts the right hand perspective it results in the right hand column (see table above) attributes of the ocean. The mental stance determines the state of the sea of life. The behaviour of the sea has its origin in the intelligence provided by one or the other beacon’s light: the mind’s or that of the spirit or encomapassing consciousness.
On perceiving the totality of the picture one notes that one has been searching in the domain of the mind what lies in the domain of the spirit; stillness in the world of turbulence; the absolute in the relative. And such search is bound to remain unfruirful.
The expansion of the reference frame from the relative cultural and turbulent to the absolute, universal and peaceful allows accessing the resources of the totality: here the dialectics of the accustomed shore are complementary and distill the best of the alternative, diverse cultural approaches, while their antagonisms can be controlled through the awareness of the absolute in the management of the relative.
The quality of man’s mind and consciousness decides along with the actual needs where man positions himself on the continuum from the cultural towards the absolute universal. It is questionable whether this continuum can be said to be a dilemma because the absolute and the relative highlight a certain discontinuity a qualitative change which is a change not within but beyond the continuum onto higher plane. One could also argue that it is one and the same light of consciousness which shines more brightly at the absolute level and dimly at the relative level, because man’s ego produces an obstacle (a combination of avarice, individual and collective ego beyond a healthy measure which create dualism and antagonism) and therefore casts a shadow. Or rather, man’s Ego casts the shadow. Shadowless light casts no shadow, unless in the sense of a shadow of comfort and protection. The magnitude of the shadow depends on the size of its cultural and personal ego.
When his awareness dawns that he is himself the author of the dualism and dialectics as a consequence of the shadow his personal and cultural ego produce he can gain the insight that he can himself remove the shadow with its antagonistic features and reflect the totality of the shadowless absolute. The key again lies in his mind and consciousness. The totality of the light of the absolute is always there. Man’s ego erects a barrier against the full light of the absolute. When he stops doing so he is on the other shore.
The two shores are, at the level of consciousness, present in man. He has access to both at any time and can therefore partake in both them. The art of accessing the absolute and universal rather consists in not doing what impedes it than in using methods, resources and processes to reach the other shore. The two shores of the ocean of life are potentialities in the human spirit that can choose the relative or the absolute perspective. The absolute perspective is reached by not adopting the relative. What is left is the absolute. This puts the relative perspective in a new light in the sense that its antagonisms are resolved by the absolute perspective.
The superior performance in the management of the relative through the light of the absolute will induce him to want to permanently transfer his main focus from the relative to the more absolute and anchor himself there rather than in the sphere of the relative and cultural where he was anchored preciously; simply because it is more sustainable, less turbulent, more efficient etc. It makes the totality of man’s resources available which actually allow integrating the shadows of duality.
Once the awareness - through suffering, questioning, searching, analyzing and through grace - has dawned that the world of relativity is contained in a vaster, absolute world and that the latter has a redeeming impact on the relative, the question arises how it can be accessed and its benefits leveraged while existing in the relative. The two worlds exist within one and the same consciousness. It is therefore about freeing the vaster consciousness so as to naturally integrate the more limited; enhancing human wholeness, structures and functions; overall integration. Once the instruments of awareness are tuned so as to operate in both dimensions, the relative and the universal, they no longer need to produce the cultural and personal shadow which are due to an obstruction of the vaster; the shadow is man-made, through unawareness of the whole which is shadowless light and as has been said at the beginning, man tends to reinforce the shadow by his attempts to resolve it and this creates vicious spirals of man’s interacting shadows. Individual and cultural diversity produce no shadow when they are not disconnected from the universal; they are mere difference aimed at benefitting the whole. When they are disconnected from the whole, the universal and absolute, differences appear as antagonisms and pose the challenge of their integration which causes the diversity struggles and cultural conlict.
Technically it is about the awareness and the convergence of two worlds, whereby one has a lead function for the other. In leveraging the one with the lead function and enhanced capabilities the other can be successfully integrated and managed. The key to all this is in man, in the human spirit, whose wholeness has to be recovered as it has been fragmented by multiple interests in multiple ways. The wholeness of consciousness reestablishes man’s wholeness. This wholeness does not function in fragments of culture and ego and can therefore view things in the light of the absolute or wholeness. Action in the light of the whole is complete. A complete action which does not antagonize the whole causes neither reaction nor shadow nor conflict.
We have started with the ocean of life metaphor, its two shores and lights and capabilities which are but one and contained in the human spirit and consciousness. Perception and action from the stance of the absolute is different form perception from the perspective of the relative; the former tends to produces no shadow of antagonism, while the latter tends not to produce the shadow of antagonism. As man acts form the background of the relative alone he will promote and antagonize other relativities. Perceiving and acting in the light of the whole and universal does not trigger the dialectics of the relative.
In the Christian religion Christ mediates between the absolute and the relative, He redeems man form the vicissitudes and dialectics of the relative. What I have called viewing things in the light of the whole has to be called viewing things in the light of Him who incarnates the Absolute. If man in the relative follows his example and commandments his thoughts and actions need not produce any shadow, because then they are tuned a priori to the shadowless light and integrity of the absolute; they are in tune with the law of the absolute. Here the mediator through his salvation work has mediated the absolute and the relative; He has redeemed the relative. All one needs to do is to faithfully follow His example. In the previous approach, the mind and consciousness analysis-based approach is far more demanding and complex. Man has to work it out alone and the anchoring is never permanent, whereas the spiritual anchoring can by more permanent if he resolves again and again to remain anchored in the personalized absolute of Christ. Diverse cultures may attribute the absolute in diverse ways, but in monotheism we assume that there is no second option, but only one with regard to the absolute, personalized or impersonal.
Whatever approach to the absolute may be chosen, personal God or impersonal consciousness analysis-based, man is conditioned to be motivated by the personal and collective ego together with avarice. They tend to cloud the light of the absolute. Therefore discernment, resolution and ethical determination are indispensable to remain anchored in the absolute once it has been recognized.
True religion is the mediation between the absolute and the relative, the reconnection of the relative to the absolute in such a way that existence in the relative is made whole and holy and potentially shadowless to foreshadow the absolute of the divine. It is up to man to accept this grace and to act accordingly. It is up to his free will to decide whether he accepts the redemption from the dialectics of duality, of conflict and the world of shadows of the relative. It is always easier to follow a perfect personal example and anchor oneself in it than to anchor oneself in impersonal principles.
The paradigm shift which conditions weal and woe of the third millennium consists in changing perception towards the perspective of the absolute so as to mitigate and pacify the myriad interfacing diversities of the relative world in the light of the whole which can remove the shadow of conflict. If that can be achieved the future can be peaceful.
Finally, I would like to present the Holistic Transcultural Management Model and explain how the absolute can be operationalized in a global management environment:
The transcultural management model or transcultural profiler is on the next page, followed by the part of the legend which is required in this context. Complete information on this profiler can be found in the writing Transcultural Management – Transkulturelles Management or Interkulturelles Management – Intercultural Management by the author of this study.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
12D Transcultural Management Model/Profiler
Review of the Transcultural Profiler
Cosmics: The Cosmic environment interconnection. The biological and mental roots of life.
Noetics: The highest psychological control, subordination and integration function.
Operationalization. The One (absolute) steps onto the stage of the human mind. It is the interfacing of the absolute awareness with the concrete reality. It remains the absolute engaging the relative world of diversity. As operationalized Oneness it engages with diversity while it remains what it essentially is, i.e. Oneness which precedes the diversification into the other levels of the infrastructure.
This 12 x 12 dimensional transcultural profiler is a model of the totality of the psychological architecture involved in managing across cultures: The relative world of management is covered by dimensions D 4 through D 12. The world of the absolute it covered by dimensions D1 and D2. At level D3 of the profiler the absolute engages in the word of relativity. It is operationalized. The absolute as a superordinate category reigns supremely and can remain in its own world of absoluteness. That may befit the saints, yogis and holy men who can remain in a state of pure consciousness, ecstasy or Samadhi, those who are mukta, i.e. free while alive. If someone needs to fulfill his duties as an international manager and wants to leverage man’s highest resources, those of the absolute, because they are the only ones to be able to sustainably manage global diversity for instance, the absolute needs to step out of the glory of its infinity and independence and to engage in the finite, relative world. In a way, it has been operationalized, but the international manager who perceives the range of his options and those of his colleagues and business partners in the light of the absolute, will take his decisions in the light of the absolute. At the level of the absolute they tend to produce no or less shadow, they do not set in motion the dialectical cycles of cultural waves for example. Faced with myriad forms of diversity he perceives the one behind the diverse appearances. And in that one there is no or less antagonism. As humans we all have ages of conditioning and a human nature which sometimes wants to have its own way. Therefore it is appropriate to be less categorical. In that sense “no or less” should be understood. Any ideological, fanatical conception of the absolute is in the domain of the relative which wants to instrumentalize the absolute and is therefore part of the shadow.
Although one talks of the category of absoluteness, human nature requires compassion and tolerance. The absolute, rather than being intransigent and hardened probably tends more to love which itself is an aspect of the absolute.
Finally, after the consciousness-analytical approach, the religious approach and the managerial approach, I would like to add a fourth approach of the convergence of the absolute and the relative; a triad in which in particular the East-West cultural interfacing can be solved. To introduce it I would like to proceed in three steps:
- a quotation by Rudyard Kipling from my writing on Transcultural Management – Transkulturelles Management
- my Sino-Western Culture and Cosmology Model – and its Integration
In the following I would like to attempt to find and answer how the cultural distance between East and West can be bridged. Rudyard Kipling in his days said:
'Oh, East is East, and West is West, and never the twain shall meet,
Till Earth and Sky stand presently at God's Great Judgement Seat;'
These are the lines which are usually quoted. However, an Indian Maharajah and former Indian Ambassador to Washington D.C. I spoke to a few years ago correctly added the following lines, which are
'But there is neither East nor West, Border, not Breed, nor Birth,
When two strong men stand face to face,
Though they come from the end of the Earth'
and he interpreted the two “strong men” as”
When two strong „minds“ meet
Sino-Western Culture and Cosmology – and its Integration are modeled on the following page.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
SINO-WESTERN CULTURE AND COSMOLOGY MODEL
Source: Transcultural Management – Transkulturelles Management by G. Deißler
Rudyard Kipling’s famous verse assumes that, except for the bravest and strongest of men, there can be no true intercultural encounter between East and West. The above referred to former Indian ambassador to Washington, who as an Indian Maharaja, is culturally at home in the East and in the West, pointed out that “strong men” refers to “strong minds”. The strong mind is precisely that which can move in the worlds of the two dimensions, that of the relative and that of the absolute. Then nothing stands in the way of a heart to heart, mutually enriching and understanding encounter. Here the example of China is considered which is perceived as being culturally even more distant from the West than India, which has been colonized by the West and therefore highlights a range of similarities with the West, above all the English language.
The model of models of Chinese Culture and Cosmology is the Heaven-Man-Earth triad. The model of models of Christian Civilisation similarly is the triad Heaven-Christ-Earth. Both imply the encounter of heaven and earth, their reconciliation which can be translated as the interfacing of the relative and the absolute. This trinitarian cosmology in both civilizations provides a platform for an understanding and a reencounter of both civilizations highlighted in the axis which connects the convergence points of the relative and the absolute in both models which culminate beyond all previous expectations to the contrary in a quintessential center (cross with concentric circles) which even unites both civilizations: the East-West cultural and cosmological integration.
The Western Christian perspective, in any case can, in spite of R. Kipling’s reserve, mediate the East-West reencounter, as this side naturally draws on the absolute with its naturally integrative features. To what extent it can be reciprocated will depend on the other side’s evolution from cultural-mental relativity towards the all-encompassing universal and absolute. It reminds us of the two shores metaphor with their respective relative and absolute light and capabilities.
Finally, we may conclude that intercultural issues are determined by the following formula, formulated as a question: To what extent can (culturally) diverse people integrate the the poles of the continumm of the socio-cultural, mental relative and the absolute, universal?
If the absolute or universal can be leveraged anything can be integrated, because everything is contained in it. It is everything, at diverse levels of manifestation. And as all men are, irrespective of their cultural diversity, more or less consciously, sons and daughters of that absolute, although they may live in the relative, there are as many avenues to it.
THE ONE AS THE REGULATOR OF UNITY AND DIVERSITY
Diversity is a design principle of the world. It has been captured in the Mandelbrot set: an equation in which a changing number and a fixed number provide a result which is fed into the changing number slot and iterated. The graphic representation of the equation displays a spiraling dynamic which produces patterns that are continuous, repetitive and self-replicating as well as chaotic. Many biological and natural systems display this fractal feature. The mathematical principle behind it is always one and the same: one principle leads to infinite variations. The endless kaleidoscope of variations is held together by one principle. One could say that the very law behind diversity is Oneness which integrates a continuum consisting of universalist and particularist tendencies, of unity and diversity.
To be as diverse as the world is, there needs to be a unifying principle behind it, a centripetal agent that holds together the centrifugal forces. They need to be in balance. And the stronger the centrifugal forces, the stronger the centripetal forces will have to be to maintain the balance. In Ancient China it has already been recognized and formulated as the yin-yang principle, where the centrifugal or yin forces need to be and actually are polarized by the centripetal yang forces and vice versa. Together they constitute Dao, the one and highest principle. Here we have another principle of Oneness, that of Dao or the Way which depending on its two aspects or arms to make it more concrete, i.e. the interplay of yin and yang forces, leads to an endless transformation and changes of forms.
Both the Mandelbrot principle and Dao are unitary. In each case one principle with two arms, metaphorically speaking, is the one way of nature, framed in diverse cultural terms which causes the myriads of diversity of the visible world that puzzle the observer and which he finds hard to reconcile at the level of the forms because they display similarities as well as dissimilarities among each other. The only way to reconcile them when their reconciliation at the dialectical level does not yield the desired result is to return to the level of the unitary principle or Oneness which produces the diverse forms. The method may be likened to the exploration of the root cause of symptoms or a of a syndrome. - The solution may consist in the return to the oneness of the principle which engendered the diverse variations which are at odds which each other. If that was feasible, one would hold the key to the reconciliation and integration of the myriad forms of diversity. - Research in the laboratory of the human mind, however, is more of an explorative undertaking than research in a natural science laboratory with specifics, protocols and replicable procedures. It’s a lonesome pioneering effort of the exploration of new terrain which is not yet systematized and therefore, as any pioneering work, may result in more questions than conclusive answers. Yet, questions in the right direction are the requisite for the right answers. Nobody can pretend to own the wisdom of Salomon. A humble approach to overarching questions of such magnitude and relevance as cultural diversity questions have at the threshold of the third millennium is therefore required.
We can take the referred to physiological metaphor literally and bring it very close to us: the two arms of the body are naturally integrated by the brain. If properly synchronized and coordinated by the integrating principle behind, which is the brain, they can synergize to produce a world of myriad forms and artifacts. If they are not integrated by the “oneness principle” which governs the two arms they might not be able to boil and egg. Disconnected from the integrative oneness principle which governs the “dialectic” of the two arms, they can become destructive rather than creative.
Variations have occurred in time and are difficult to reverse. They seem to be irreversible. To make them reversible, time in which the variations have occurred would also have to be reversible. And this does not seem to be the case in the material world. Although, the question of time, whether it is an a priori or whether it is manufactured by human consciousness as well as the question of its reversibility are a matter of debate among scientists.
The question that arises is therefore whether time, in which the many variations and diversifications have occurred can be “reversed in the mind”, in other words, whether the material diversification can be reversed or transcended at the mental or consciousness level. Then one could achieve their unification by a detour.
The problem of ending psychological time has been discussed by enlightened minds like J. Krishnamurti in his talks with leading scientists of the transdisciplinary scientific community for fifty years across the globe. It is also thematized by various religions as the master key in view of liberation as such.
There are the physicists’ approaches to time beginning with geniuses like Einstein, Ilya Prigogine and others that seem to be non-conclusive and there are the enlightened intellectual approaches which use it as a lever to solve the riddle of existence and in view of a consciousness revolution. There also are the religious approaches to time which hope to find liberation in its mastery. And finally the modern samurai of the “budo tradition” at a more sophisticated level declare that in their very concrete experience neither time nor space exist. This applies to Sensei Morihei Ueshiba, the creator of aikido. The physicist’s, the philosopher’s, the spiritualist’s and the samurai’s approaches to time highlight its relevance when one enquires into the deeper layers of existence. But, although time cannot be ignored, it is not the major focus of this exploration. It seems to be clear that fully understanding time and transcending psychological time and therefore the mind (which largely seems to be a product of time) in order to reach unconditioned awareness can be an approach to the One and its transformatory magic. Here we want to follow a more conventional Western cultural tradition:
Based on the unity-diversity, centrifugal-centripetal balance there should also be one principle that holds together the totality of the diverse creation. From a monotheistic standpoint the underlying unitary principle of the dialectic of the unity-diversity continuum of creation and its integrative polarization is the Creator. Therefore the totality of the diverse creation can be explained by the superordinate logic of oneness of the all-encompassing Creator. In other words the correct understanding of monotheism which presides over the centrifugal and the centripetal forces of creation, those of diversification and integration, of diversity and unity which together are aspects of the one principle behind creation should enable a path to the integration of the diversity of the manifested forms. And what stands behind the principle as well as the manifestation is the creator of both, the principle and its activity. This is the biggest One and true magic of the one imaginable.
If one accepts that man is made in the image of God, as a replication of his Creator, he contains the oneness principle as well as the unity-diversity principle and therefore the ability to naturally balance centrifugal forces of diversity and centripetal forces of unity and also the integration of the two forces in an absolute ONE, which simply is and by virtue of its being what it is, constitutes the master key to all diversity resolution dilemmas. It appears as a gift of the wisdom of the Creator that has been bestowed on him a priori for dilemma resolution in the periphery of his being. As a gift it brings the obligation of its operationalization with it. The Bible is full of metaphors that go beyond the assumption of a oneness principle behind diversity, dualistic principles and dialectics. One can even detect a total BIG ONE of the oneness of the totality of what is, has ever been and will ever be. As the religious aspects of diversity challenges threaten the whole of mankind today as a sword of Damocles, religious intelligence and sensitivity should no longer be banned from academia as unfashionable or unscientific. There is increasing evidence that religious and even pseudo-religious determination can outlast a coalition of mighty armies. And, after all, the academic world of the 21st century hinges on centuries of monastic tradition. Should this evidence and the roots of academic culture be ignored? - Misperception of oneness, all-encompassing oneness which means acceptance, love and solidarity with the human family as a whole, without excluding those who manifest oneness in diverse forms, should be corrected so as to honour the principle of oneness beyond diversity. The root of the fundamentalist problem consists in the misperception of the oneness principle by diminished particularist standards: a deficitary notion of oneness. Love of God, of oneself and of one’s neighbour are oneness in action. They are one, indivisible and all-encompassing.
Due to the possibility of expanding awareness so as to encompass the totality and based on the monotheistic Christian assumption of man being made in the image of God, the integrity of the total seems to be an a priori fact and actual determinant of human nature as a whole. Due to his/her lack of awareness or oblivion of this a priori fact which underpins his/her existence antagonistic diversity issues can arise. Therefore, although evolution seems to be materially irreversible, memory of the origin can effect the magic of integration. It is the magic of the one. It is so self-evident that man forgets it. This forgetfulness underlies the struggle of the diverse forms. Through the reminiscence of his/her Creator man can in a way reverse and transcend time at the level of consciousness and always return to the totality and oneness without giving up an inch of his singular individual uniqueness, evolutionary “acquis” and modern sophistication. Through his aware memory he has access to the one which is always present in a latent form together with the diversifying and integrating forces. It is so close to him that it eludes him. But when it slips outside the horizon of his awareness he puts it at an unreachable distance which makes it unavailable as a natural integrative function of diversity.
With the premise of man being made in the image of God he can not only reconcile unity and diversity but he can completely transcend this dialectic as he partakes - based on the premise of him being a replication of his Creator - not only in the dialectical but also in the oneness principle behind it. It is truly marvellous how man can - in consciousness - transform anything he encounters from duality into underlying unity without a hue of dissolution. While maintaining the outer status quo and not giving up anything of his uniqueness he can fully integrate diversity by virtue of consciousness, awareness or reminiscence of his true nature. It appears that in spirit or consciousness man can reverse time while remaining in his personal time-space.
Unity and diversity together constitute the continuum of totality. In order to integrate it a mediator is required that contains the two. Although diversity can be polarized by unity it is no sustainable solution to the diversity challenge, because unity and diversity interact dialectically. The true diversity solution only resides in the transcendence of this continuum which is the transcendence of time, the psychological reversal of time. It is not a simple reconciliation in dilemma theory terms, because the synergy formula of the two poles will probably remain in the domain of duality, whereas the true transcendence of the dualistic plane can only be achieved by the non-dualistic dimension or plane of oneness itself. However, the clearance of the dualistic unity-diversity plane, its integration can be a stepping stone towards the higher non-dualistic plane of oneness, where the true, irreversible, unconditioned essential One resides that is no longer subject to the dance of alliances of the dualistic plane with its ephemeral reference criteria for human solidarity: There is a difference in quality between the two levels. The dualistic plane is cultural and reversible, whereas the non-dualistic dimension is essential and irreversible. If man can think it and if true spirituality has been teaching about this absolute plane for eons and enjoins moral codes of behaviour for its realization one may assume that it actually exists and that it is not a projection of an ideal state as a response to the actual state of the affairs of the world. Whether it can be achieved also depends on man’s development on levels D4 Ethics and D5 Evolution of the transcultural management model or profiler below. It also depends on a shift of priorities in human potential enhancement from idiocentric to allocentric finalities which expand the reference criterion for human solidarity to encompass more of the whole. And obviously, as has been pointed out, it can be derived from a number of world views, first and foremost those which merit the attribute religious as well as scientific and philosophical analysis. The enhanced reality can be discovered through grace, revelation, analysis or ethical effort, sensitization and awareness and last but not least also through learning. And that is where our age of information and communication and the age of knowledge which are both built on learning have to play a role. As such it becomes an issue of a sustainable universal socialization, locally, regionally and globally and moves from the esoteric into the exoteric domain of politics which, in the long-term, is a major beneficiary of a socialization in the light of a geopolitical oneness principle, because it may well be the panacea of choice for domestic, intercultural and international conflict: the path of peace and the fulfillment of human cravings since time immemorial, probably unfulfilled because various contextual factors and conditioning kept him on the plane of duality and dialectics. But with human affairs gravitating towards wholeness and integration in every respect man could also realize the corollary of his whole potentiality, the awareness of natural, unconditional essential oneness as a complement and a solution to frequently unnatural, conditioned, peripheral diversity conceptions. Is such a perspective not the corner stone of a blueprint for the future of the world at this critical threshold of changing eras in many ways?
For monotheistic believers the agent that allows the transcendence of duality is the Creator: a personal solution. Non-believers in a personal God need an impersonal third agent to integrate the dialectics of diversity and unity. Without a mediator man has to do the work alone. As such the mediator truly is a divine grace! Consciousness techniques to transcend duality are practiced by other world views. To what extent they are effective can be measured by whether they remain on the dualistic plane of change or can go beyond it. The transcendence of duality transcends the game of unity and diversity. It is anchored in the One and not subject to changes as a consequence of the interplay between unity and diversity. The two react to each other. There is a tension between the two. The anchoring in the One transcends this dialectic tension.
A religious mind or one that is fully aware of the consciousness dimension is required to solve the mystery of unity and diversity through the Magic of the One. It seems that all integrative oneness can be reached through mediation: mediation by the Creator for monotheistic or through the type of consciousness that presides over the interplay of the two tendencies of the mind which functions on a continuum of unity and diversity and depending on where man puts his emphasis, effort and conscious attention he will perceive through the filter provided by that point of the unity-diversity continuum. Yet this plane remains dialectical and needs redemption by the non-dialectical oneness plane. So it seems. The transition towards that plane conditions the irreversibility of integration of the dualistic plane.
The horizontal axis which maps the continuum of unity-diversity cannot redeem itself - except temporarily - as a law of duality presides over this plane. The dialectic can however be stabilized by introducing a second, vertical axis. The two axes together form a cross. The intersection between the horizontal diversity-unity continuum and the vertical oneness axis provides the integration interface for all three: unity-diversity and oneness. This interface allows the management of all aspects that make up the world. It sums up all potentialities. And it provides the summum of simplicity and anchoring in otherwise vast and unmanageable complexity. This intersection is another approximation to the magic of the One.
However, language itself may sometimes constitute a barrier to the approximation of that still point. It can lead towards it, but it can also lead away from it. It functions dialectically and by doing so tends to keep the one who uses it within the perimeter of its dialectics which one needs to leave behind in order to approach that “magic point”. Stilling the mind and linguistic activity, inner and outer, are part of this stillness. The unity-diversity turbulences of mental origin cannot arise on the ocean of quietness. The ocean can be understood as a metaphor encompassing the two qualities of essential oneness as well as the potential dialectics of the waves of diversity and unity. All three are always present in it. It is a nature metaphor of the trinity metaphor. The Holy Trinity might therefore also be read as the highest principle – the highest magic that symbolizes the Creator with the totality of Creation and the redemption of the latter through the mediation of the Son in the Holy Spirit: A cosmic unity-diversity integration principle to be used as a divine template and panacea for successful resolution of diversity integration at the microcosmic, human scale. This eschatological unity diversity-mystery of the divine trinity could be seen as the rationale of the the human unity-diversity enigma. Understanding the diversity principle behind diversity makes it decodable and and soluble. - As in the previous approaches to the magic of the all-integrating and unifying one there are three entities involved: a principle of principles, the One, which integrates the dialectics of the other principle: a non-dialectical principle that presides over a seemingly dialectical principle. Here Oneness assumes diverse forms in order to unite and unify. - Attempts at the level of a dialectical principle can only produce other forms of dialectics, whereas integration via a non-dialectical principle terminates dialectics and duality. This is the only sustainable integration of dialectic diversity mechanisms.
It can be the redemption not only from the dialectics of the human condition which displays the game of duality in myriad forms, but also from other conditions. The sheer inability to transcend this condition is part of the human condition. But thinkers about the human condition (la condition humaine) should also have inquired as to whether the condition is an irreversible human condition or rather a human conditioning which, through repetition and reinforcement at the individual and at the social level, is accepted as a condition. It is accepted as the condition, even though it is partly due to conditioning and therefore partly reversible. It has been reinforced over time so as to make any questioning of it appear like a lack of common sense, of realism and pragmatism. Responding with the opposite conditioning would cause the human mind to remain at the very same level of duality and dialectical thinking. Therefore the only truly pragmatic question is whether the quality of the approach can be changed in such a way that dialectics and its endless replication in new forms can be transcended. If the human condition results largely form conditioning it can be changed by understanding and ending the conditioning which is not conducive to individual and social health – and which produces the overall bad condition, the plight of the planet.
If we understand that the cause for the human condition largely resides in human conditioning it would be common sense to refrain from further conditioning. But when all forms of conditioning, ideological, social, cultural, etc. are stopped man experiences a total void, an emptiness of sense which might frighten him. He needs something in exchange and a good exchange would be to turn his attention to totality and to oneness. It is a good deal that exchanges something infinitely vast for a small fragment of it. That should make sense, even to modern materialistic mindsets. If one can redirect attention towards the non-dialectical principle a new awareness of the whole may dawn which thinks in integrative rather than divisive terms. What follows are new ethics, values and bahaviours.
On the assumption that a non-dialectical principle can perform the magic of the one, that is to solve the dilemmas arising on the diversity-unity continuum I have designed a transcultural management model which resolves the dialectics of an intercultural management environment in a superordinate oneness principle, which is not ideology-specific and which can be accessed from various world views and cultural backgrounds. As is the case with pyramids or dome structures, the top can be accessed via many paths and angles of vision. The same applies to this model. In South America or in the Middle East on might choose a pyramid structure to symbolize the convergence in a unifying principle, in Nomad environments maybe a simple tent, in the East a mandala etc. Our model of choice in the Christian world is that of a DOME structure which morphologically and symbolically carries the message of the resolution of the game of diversity and multiplicity in a harmonious hierarchical architecture which integrates the edifice from the top. It is a model that aspires at the representation of oneness with all its diverse manifestations.
Part of the rationale of this 12x12 dimensional model (see following pages) is that in a global village not only business and technology are globalized and increase the degree of globalization steadily but also the diversity challenge has concomitantly assumed various forms of globalization. A sustainable solution to one of these major issues of our days has not been found. The present reflection is part of an inquiry into an approach that matches the issue. It is a vital question for humanity as a whole, as the cold civil wars and international diversity conflicts tend to assume increasingly hot and military shapes and forms. Any healthy system which has the will to survive responds with all its resources to maintain its integrity and to ensure its survival. Traditional diversity management approaches have neither at the domestic nor at the international level engineered the solutions the world needs at this stage of transition to a world civilization. Evidence of it has accumulated over the past years in all hemispheres. So, it is legitimate and even imperative to draw on man’s noblest virtues and highest resources and to explore whether and how it is possible to preserve and further evolve that which has been entrusted to man which is the whole of the earth with himself as its crown and not to jeopardize and squander it, above all the existence of man himself. And the solution must be at the level of the challenge to be effective. Astronomically expensive military expenses to meet the challenge alone are not at the level of the threat. At best they are the stick of a carrot and stick policy. But where’s the carrot in this approach which man is willing to perceive and follow? A problem of the mind and consciousness produced and maintained by ongoing conditioning should also be met at its own level of consciousness. And in the global age of communication one wonders why global I&C resources are not more systematically used to facilitate global change pacifically.
So it is also necessary to meet a problem of the mind at the level of the mind and consciousness. The resources for this purpose are there. So are the institutions in the form of IOs and NGOs etc. Obviously the awareness has to dawn at the level of the policy and decision makers. The latter are accountable in this context. Those who do not seek alternative, enhanced ways up to the requirements need to justify why they do not try or are unable to respond more effectively at a non-violent level, not those need to justify themselves who see that it is necessary to daringly draw on man’s noblest endowment which is there and lies dormant.
Yet, the time has come to wake up, to stand up and respond to hottening up, globally scaled wars. It has been known to strategists for millennia, from Sun Tzu to Mao Zedong right to the Hindukush in our days, for example, where the biggest armies cannot fully pacify a region, that effective conflict resolution, particularly cultural diversity conflict resolution cannot be achieved by the use of the stick alone. That’s where the model of transcultural management comes in which can inspire an approach which is not only applicable to global business management but to any management where first and foremost the conflict is in the human mind and consciousness. And there are few conflicts to which this does not apply. In cultural diversity and religious diversity conflicts the battlefield is the human mind and waging the war of the mind and consciousness on the material battlefield is of limited use. The battlefield of the mind needs to use a more sophisticated infrastructure, softer weapons which are all pervasive in their reach. Classical weapons do not penetrate the depth of the human mind and heart. They harden them and produce contrary effects to those pursued in the mind of strategists.
Some argue that a critical mass has to change in order to bring about global change. But if we assume that the individual is the world himself because all these conflicts have their origin first and foremost in the human mind, the individual himself has the obligation to become aware and change, for then the world changes. Then the hot and hard weapons and wars will belong to the past of human history. The transcultural profiler which is a systematic approach to transcultural management and conflict resolution that draws on man’s highest psychological potentialities is a soft weapon which can contribute to conflict resolution through the carrot rather than the stick. I would like to represent it once more for more clarity. The following picture shows a perfect DOME design, whereas the subsequent model merely insinuates this perfection. The religious motive in its perfection bridges and integrates the various approaches to diversity-based conflict resolution, the religious and the more profane which all make their unique contribution.
Wissenschaftliche Studie, 388 Seiten
Fachbuch, 303 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 389 Seiten
Fachbuch, 397 Seiten
Fachbuch, 313 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 485 Seiten
Fachbuch, 510 Seiten
Fachbuch, 395 Seiten
Fachbuch, 370 Seiten
Fachbuch, 217 Seiten
Fachbuch, 636 Seiten
Fachbuch, 137 Seiten
Wissenschaftliche Studie, 388 Seiten
Fachbuch, 303 Seiten
Forschungsarbeit, 389 Seiten
Fachbuch, 397 Seiten
Fachbuch, 313 Seiten
Fachbuch, 395 Seiten
Fachbuch, 370 Seiten
Fachbuch, 217 Seiten
Fachbuch, 636 Seiten
Fachbuch, 137 Seiten
Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veröffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bücher spezialisiert. Der GRIN Verlag steht damit als erstes Unternehmen für User Generated Quality Content. Die Verlagsseiten GRIN.com, Hausarbeiten.de und Diplomarbeiten24 bieten für Hochschullehrer, Absolventen und Studenten die ideale Plattform, wissenschaftliche Texte wie Hausarbeiten, Referate, Bachelorarbeiten, Masterarbeiten, Diplomarbeiten, Dissertationen und wissenschaftliche Aufsätze einem breiten Publikum zu präsentieren.
Kostenfreie Veröffentlichung: Hausarbeit, Bachelorarbeit, Diplomarbeit, Dissertation, Masterarbeit, Interpretation oder Referat jetzt veröffentlichen!