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10 Seiten, Note: First Class
The following essay discusses using three constructivist approaches whilst encouraging students to be on task, reach their targets and attainable goals, whilst making sure all their educational needs are being readily met, through means of differentiated tasks. Lesson planning and setting outcomes, objectives and aims are essential especially when planning music lessons emphasising the importance of music history and allowing students to differentiate between the composers of the Baroque period.
As part of lesson planning, it is essential to plan accordingly to your student's educational needs whilst understanding how to differentiate in the classroom. Using the constructivist approach will allow educators to be able to set attainable goals for students to achieve. Working in collaboration with your students and enhancing their strengths will allow students to demonstrate their different Approaches to Teaching and Learning (ATL) skills, whilst being risk-takers, and effective communicators within your classroom
Keywords: International Baccalaureate, Lesson planning, Objectives, Outcomes.
The objective of this essay is to highlight the importance of implementing a constructivist approach to lesson planning within the International Baccalaureate programme focusing on the Primary Years (PPYP) and Middle Years (MYP) Programme. The following detailed lesson plan is to familiarise the students with Music History focussing on the ornamentations of composers from the Baroque period focussing on Handel, Bach and Vivaldi. These composers were the forerunners with structural harmony, the use of ornamentations to decorate melodies and harmonies and the use of basso continuo through the use of instruments including the violoncello, the double bass, and pipe organs.
Planning is essential in advance to consider all the students participating actively in your classroom. There are a few things to consider for example how much time you have available, how long the lesson will be? Do you have enough differentiated targeted instructional questions? Did you academically stimulate all the students, did you consider their levels and abilities? What forms of differentiation are you applying to your lessons and activities? Are they challenging everyone, including those listed on the Gifted and Talented (G & T) programme, or even students on the English as Additional Language (EAL) registry? Are you giving students opportunities to reflect on their learning, what plenaries are you incorporating at the end of the lessons?
• All students should be able to differentiate between the various periods in genres in the Baroque Period focusing on the composers: Handel, Bach, and Vivaldi.
• Some of the students will be able to compose using music technology
• Most students should have listened to music from the Baroque period Time of the lesson and range of activities
• Time: 1 Hour
• Constructivist approach - Inquiry-based learning.
• Starter activity: Students will have 10 minutes to identify the various instruments they hear from three extracts being played by either Vivaldi, Bach or Handel.
• Main activity: Students will use IPads to research the various composers associated with and conclude collaboratively group presentation on the history of Baroque music
• Assessment (Formative and Summative): Formative is ongoing and will include a worksheet and short test presented on composers. The Summative will be concluded at the end of the three units and will comprise multiple-choice questions.
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Music lesson scenario 1 (Instructional approaches used)
As part of the music lesson in Year 5 students are exploring the history of Baroque Music focusing on composers from this genre, and studying composers by checking timelines from Bach, Handel and Vivaldi. Students are looking at the Unit of Inquiry question: "How music has evolved from the Baroque period, and which compositional techniques have been employed. Through reading articles students have to ask themselves inquiry-based questions: "how has music evolved?", "what characteristics make baroque music different?", "when did composers like Bach, Handel and Vivaldi compose music which highlighted concertos?". Through using the inquiry lens students think critically and make connections with various primary sources. For example, students will explore different audio that they can listen to the music, and identify the different instruments used, they will look at visuals, where students will explore the key terminologies used in Baroque music, including basso continuo, harmonic progressions, and ornamentation. Students will watch films related to the Baroque period and make detailed notes enhancing their communication and thinking skills as outlined by IBO (2018) being "critical thinkers" (p. 1).
These activities and instructional approaches iterate what Newman & Warach (2008) explores by stating that: "Students have done this type of assignment before and know that, as journalists, they must ask themselves "who, what, when, where, how, and why" questions" (para 2, p. 2).
Students have the opportunity to expand their vocabulary and learn new words by investigating what they have been presented in terms of the primary resources. They will study visuals, look at pictures from the Baroque period and make notes related to the topic. Newman & Warach (2008) confirms that: “This teacher knows that literacy has three main aspects: reading, thinking, and communicating” (p. 2).
As students continue to explore the timelines of the musical composers, Bach, Handel and Vivaldi, they have to study the various compositions published and composed during the period. They have to use their research skills, by reading content, internalising the information, and making conclusions, through sharing projects in the Music class. Some students will be working on a joint class project concluding a presentation on Google slides, where they work collaboratively together to use the primary resources to enable them to finish off their projects in the classroom. Students explore the phenomenon of becoming music historians and musicologists, where they look at the scientific study of music through being “risk takers'', “knowledgeable”, and “principled according to the IBO (n.d.) learner profiles. When students are sourcing, according to Wineburg (2010) they “Think about a document’s author and its creation” (p. 3). Getting students to think critically is one of the main objectives of inquiry-based learning, here the constructivist approach can only be valuable to those educators who use it consistently.
Students have the opportunity to investigate, evaluate the primary resources, read a memo written from the time, and look at a historical document. In this case, students are exploring letters the teachers have shared written by the composer's Bach and Handel as researchers.
Through exploring these instructional approaches, students as outlined by Wineburg (2010) explain: "Consider introducing students to several specific strategies for reading historical documents: sourcing, contextualising, close reading, using background knowledge, reading the silences, and corroborating. Each strategy is defined below, followed by teaching ideas" (p. 3). Students have the opportunity to collaborate, contextualise the information, using the background information that was shared, which could include letters, memos, and journals that were archived from the various Baroque composers, and shared by the teacher with the students. Reflecting on your learning is very important and allows students the opportunity to share their opinions, ideas, knowledge and information with their peers through means of collaboration.
Deciding what assessment criteria will be used to evaluate the work presented, which might include audio examples, a picture shared, historical timelines of each of the composers, their contributions, a combination of visuals and audio examples, which might include their favourite compositions for each composer? These may include google slide presentations, and collaborative projects, depending on the teacher, and what is significantly important.