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Akademische Arbeit, 2022
III. INTRODUCTION AND RATIONALE
IV. LITERATURE REVIEW
V. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
VI. SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
VII. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
B. Data Collection
C. Ethical Issues
D. Plan for Data Analysis
VIII. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
A. LEVEL OF EFFECTIVENESS OF VIDEO-BASED LESSON AS INSTRUCTIONAL LEARNING MATERIALS OF PUPILS AS PERCEIVED BY TEACHERS
B. PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED BY TEACHERS IN THE UTILIZATION OF VIDEO-BASED INSTRUCTION AS INSTRUCTIONAL LEARNING MATERIALS FOR PUPILS AMIDST PANDEMIC
C. SOLUTIONS EMPLOYED BY TEACHERS TO RESOLVE THE PROBLEMS IN THE UTILIZATION OF VIDEO-BASED INSTRUCTION AS INSTRUCTIONAL LEARNING MATERIALS
IX. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
X. TIMETABLE /GANTT CHART
XI. PLANS FOR DISSEMINATION AND ADVOCACY
XIII. FINANCIAL REPORT
XIV. SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE
Video- based learning resources are effective tools that “invest the past with an air of actuality.” They distribute the learners with true knowledge, which detention their devotion and help in the understanding of the ancient marvels. Specifically, this paper. This study aimed to determine the level of effectiveness of video-based lesson as instructional learning material for pupils as perceived by teachers in Gubat South Central School, Gubat District, School Year 2021-2022.
Both quantitative and qualitative were used in the study. The respondents of the study were fifteen (15) elementary teachers. Purposive sampling technique was utilized. Interviews, Survey Questionnaire, Participant Observation, and Focus Group Discussion were the methods employed.
It was revealed that the level of effectiveness of video-based lessons gained an overall point of 3.98. Therefore, the video-based lessons as one of the instructional tools is rated much effective as perceived by teachers. There are problems encountered by teachers in the utilization of video-based instruction as instructional learning materials for pupils amidst pandemic. These include lack of knowledge on how to utilize video-based lessons as classroom tool in teaching, lack of instructional materials such as laptops, cellphones, that can be used in accessing information in video-based, difficulty in creating video-based lessons due to poor internet connections, short attention span of interest in watching videos among with learners and time consuming and expensive on the part of pupils especially in pandemic time where not all pupils can afford to buy phones
The study successfully surfaced the teachers’ solutions to resolve the problems in the utilization of video-based instruction as instructional learning materials such as asking assistance from ICT Coordinator and well-trained teachers on how to learn how to create and use video-based materials for teaching purposes, knowing the needs of learners to, accessing ideas thru watch youtube to gain different ideas on how to create interactive video-based lessons, developing video-lessons shortly to address pupils who have short attention span watching lessons and attending online training relative to the development and utilization of video-based lessons to equip them with the skills in teaching classes in modern ways.
It is recommended therefore, that teachers must be creative in developing video lessons and other forms of instructional teaching resources that are suited to the needs of learners. The Department of Education must strengthen their support in providing training among teachers regarding the different technological tools used in teaching-learning process. Teachers should aim to develop their technological skills in manipulating computers that are in need in teaching digitally-native learners. The departmental administration, policy makers and educators must also strive to provide more professional development and an environment that allows teachers to integrate these resources in their classrooms. Similar studies may also be conducted relative to the perceptions, experiences of teachers in the use of video-based lessons from other schools and divisions.
The researcher would like to express her sincerest gratitude and appreciation to the following individuals who contributed to the completion of this study:
MANUEL V. ESTERA, OIC- Public Schools District Supervisor of Gubat South District and LENY E. CODON, Principal I of Gubat South Central School for their invaluable guidance throughout this study. Their dynamism, vision, sincerity and motivation have deeply inspired the researcher
The Division Research Committee, for their valuable comments and suggestions for the refinement of this work;
The Gubat South Central School teachers of Gubat South District, the respondents in this study, for the full cooperation extended to the researcher;
To her co-teachers, for their words of encouragement and moral support;
The members of his family and friends for their support and valuable prayers;
Above all, the Almighty God, for His showers of blessings throughout my research work to complete this manuscript successfully.
I. F. E.
The global impact of Covid-19 is multifaceted and is clearly manifested in almost all sectors, particularly the education sectors which limit face-to-face classes as a means of protecting the students and the community at large from the spread of the pandemic. According to UNESCO reports, more than 1.5 billion students in about 165 countries have been affected by the lockdown of schools and campuses. As a result, schools, colleges, and universities were forced to shift in some way or another to online learning as a replacement for on-site delivery. Worldwide school closures, alongside other secondary impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, are projected to have far-reaching implications in the short and the long term for children, their families, and their communities. Education is a particularly challenging issue in the context of the pandemic. On one hand, school environments risk high rates of COVID-19 transmission, and closures are seen as necessary measures to protect public health. On the other hand, the linkages between schools and children’s health, safety, and life prospects are significant (Lederman,2020). In order to avoid widespread virus distribution, a social distancing rule is established to avoid the surplus patients infected by COVID- 19.
People live in a constantly evolving digital world. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has an impact on nearly every aspects of people's lives, from working to socializing, and playing to learning. It transformed the way young people's communicate, network, seek help, access information and learn. It is important to recognize that most young people now belong to online population, their access comes in varied forms such as computers, social networks, emails, digital cards, televisions, and mobile phones (Perez, 2016).
Teachers use technology because it motivates students and offers a different mode of presentation. Instead of using computers for drill and practice, more confident teachers use technology as an instructional tool to enhance students’ learning. Successful technology adoption in teachers’ classrooms is dependent upon school administrators providing an individualized, differentiated process of training and implementation (Gray, 2011).
Contemporary advancements in digital technologies and knowledge have significance for school learning styles. E-learning, online learning, game-based learning, digital multimedia, computer-based learning, video-based learning and other digital-based learning technologies enable students to study independently. Moreover, those give flexibility in time and space. Therefore, all educational institutions take advantages of this industrial revolution 4.0 to overcome educational issues during the COVID-19 pandemic (Dawne, 2017).
In delivering the learning material through online access, teachers need to have other media which make the classroom still interactive. One of the teaching media that support the learning process is video-based instruction. It will become an innovative way of teaching for teachers. The educational video itself could make the learning activity becomes meaningful and interesting. According to Bajrami, L., & Ismaili (2016), video lesson could help the instructors give the students some visual aids related to learning material, making the students do not miss anything while studying by online learning. They also argued that video learning could make students more focused on practising their language skills, especially listening and speaking.
Video cases is very popular instructional tools and can be used in different disciplines such as history education, mathematics education, nurse education teacher education (Koc, et.,al, 2019). According to the different objectives of lessons or nature of the discipline, the integration of the video into lessons is also varying. In some lessons, video can be used not only as an instructional tool for supporting lesson with different activities but also as a discussion tool for facilitating interaction and communication among students, teachers and video films.
Video- based learning resources are effective tools that “invest the past with an air of actuality.” They distribute the learners with true knowledge, which detention their devotion and help in the understanding of the ancient marvels. They demand to the mind through the senses. When we use video aids as teaching aid, it is one of the aspects which root participation of students in the lesson because when students look at model or aid, it is measured as a kind of contribution. Also, the uses of video-based instructional aids encourage the body movement and it may strengthen the control (Jain,2014).
The effective use of video-based instruction were also supported by Donkor (2015) who compared the instructional effectiveness of the video-based instructional materials and traditional print-based instructional materials. The investigation results showed that video-based instructional materials are pedagogically superior to the traditional instructional materials when used as distance education materials.
Furthermore, Vural (2013) investigated the effect of question-embedded online interactive video environment on student achievement. A quasi-experimental design was development to compare the effectiveness of a question-embedded interactive video environment (QVE) and an interactive video environment without the question component (IVE). The research results show that the question-embedded video-based environment tool promote the student learning, improve the amount of interaction of the student as well as time spent with the learning materials.
The mentioned studies will bear significance to the present study for they dealt on the use of video-based approach as tools in enhancing the academic performance of the pupils. Just like the present study that will focus on the effects of video-based instruction in the performance level of kindergarten pupils. However,from the given advantages of video-based instructional resources, schools must make new technologies accessible to students that are already available to improve the educational delivery of teachers. Thus, they must be given educational resources and training to integrate properly the materials into new teaching means. However, due to the high cost to purchase materials, teachers cannot afford to teach students using the advanced technology which oftentimes lead to the low performance of students.
Meanwhile, Koc, Peker and Osmanoglu (2019) explored the potential value of video based case discussions among pre-service and in-service teachers, and the video case teacher as a tool for the professional development of teachers. The results indicated that participant teachers were able to make theory practice connections by articulating specific frameworks that guided their study. The inclusion of the video case teacher was beneficial for the other teachers in several ways and the case teacher have a great potential to support teacher professional development.
In order to resolve issues in modular distance learning, teacher's role is essential to the effectiveness of implementing digital technology in elementary schools as one mechanisms to improve the learning of the pupils. Department of Education recommended the utilization of video-based lessons. As such, the project called “The Production and Distribution of the Video Lessons for DepEd TV, and Production Training of its Teachers Broadcasters was implemented. This project will bring multiple advantages in distance learning, thus, the teacher must use it efficiently in the classroom (Luistro, 2020).
The use of videos is ideal for providing feedback, conducting assessments and also improving the quality of mentoring. Learning, through the use of video technology has also proven to have an impact on the understanding of dynamic events for it offers the possibility for them to witness the dynamics of interaction.
However, in spite of the wide range benefits it offers in education particularly in teaching, the use of video-based lessons has its own limitations. It has been argued that videos may show only part of the story in classroom teaching, which is subject to personal bias and interpretation. Additionally, Clark (2014) noted another challenge of video as an instructional medium is the cost burden, especially to resource constrained institutions. The production of high quality videos is expensive; and most developing countries may not be able to sustain this form of teaching without reliance on external funding though video based instruction, as an educational medium has gained acceptance as an alternative and a supplement to traditional classroom instruction (Alavi et al. 2017).
Furthermore, one of the main disadvantages of video-based in education is that it lacks the aspect of personal interaction. As much as streaming of lessons or meetings might be effective, participants might miss out on important facial expressions and body language. That may happen when one experiences a stuttering video or a pixilated image from the presentation due to bad equipment or internet connection. Such things can limit learning and lead to wastage of resources like time and internet data subscription (Rice, 2019).
More so, using video-based currently practiced in education tend to make participating students undergo contemplation, remoteness and a lack of interaction. As a result, many of the students and teachers who inevitably spend much of their time online can start experiencing signs of social isolation, due to the lack of human communication in their lives. Social isolation coupled with a lack of communication often leads to several mental health issues such as heightened stress, anxiety, and negative thoughts (Tamm, 2021).
In view of the above, this study seeks to look into how teachers, who are using this type these of media in their teaching, perceive the role of video-based lessons. Therefore, the study will be designed in the first place to measure and analyse elementary school teachers’ perception of the extent of effectiveness of videos as instructional learning materials in teaching. This study aims to determine the effects of video-based lessons when it is used in the classroom setting.
More so, it will explore possible problems that teachers met and solutions being employed to address the challenges encountered by teacher relative to the utilization of video instruction in the teaching-learning process. The results and findings may help educators see the issues on the use of such learning tools in teaching-learning process, thereby provide answers or resolutions on the arising issues of utilization of such technological tool in the learning process.
Moreover, the objective of the study also aimed to provide a better teaching and learning environment for students and therefore function as an important tool to improve student learning outcomes and performance thru the findings and result of the study that served as basis to make teaching more effective using the said instruction, thus, academic performance of the pupils will be achieved.
Using technology in education is becoming a must all over the world these days as it facilitates, strengthens, and supports the education system in general. According to Bull and Ma (2001), the use of technology provides learners with a lot of resources. Becker (2000) states that computers are important educational instruments in language classes as teachers could have convenient access, prepare their lessons properly with a kind of flexibility with the curriculum they use. Cutter (2015) also claims that technology helps increase learners' motivation. When students use computers and modern devices, they become more motivated than when using their own textbooks.
Several research conducted study about the use of video-based lessons as an instructional materials in teaching. perception of teachers on the use of video-based instruction. Moreover, Boukadi (2014) conducted a study to investigate teachers' experiences and perceptions regarding the use of technology in foreign language teaching. According to the study, three teachers were interviewed. One of the study’s finding was that the teachers agreed that the students still need the training to be able to use technology properly. Furthermore, they were all in favor of the use of technology as it makes their teaching more effective and helps meet the needs of the students. Besides, they agreed that teachers need to be proficient in using technological devices to apply them in their teaching classes.
In investigating the importance of the use of video as teaching media, Bajrami, L., & Ismaili (2016) investigated the advantages of video material in their study about the role of video material classrooms. The study aims to find out the advantages of video material in language learning of EFL students. The result of the study is that video material provides many advantages in language learning. Besides help teacher to stimulate students’ interest and motivation in the learning process, video material could increase students’ language skill because video provides images, audio, video, and text that could imitate by the students.