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Facharbeit (Schule), 2002
14 Seiten, Note: 2- (B-)
George W. Bush's "fight against terrorism" - An analysis of his speeches concerning the terror attacks on New York and the war in Afghanistan
In my term paper I am going to deal with the topic „George W. Bush’sfight against terrorism- An analysis of his speeches concerning the terror attacks on New York and the war in Afghanistan“. At the beginning I will give a short overview of the events of 11th September 2001 and its consequences for introducing into the subject. I chose this topic, because it is both present-day and historical established. When hijacked jetliners hit the World Trade Centre in New York and the Pentagon outside Washington, many people were shocked that something like this could happen. The Federal Aviation Administration halted all flight operations at the U.S. airports for the first time in history and the military was placed in high alert. Hundreds of people died when the WTC Twin Towers collapsed. After the first shock, many were afraid of a third world war which could start with the military strikes in Afghanistan. Besides, the speeches of the American President George W. Bush gave rise to worry and criticism because of some formulations. In my term paper I want to analyse some characteristic subjects on the basis of four exemplary speeches made in the period from 11th September until 8th November 2001. For this I start with the summaries of each of the speeches I deal with to show the main topics of them and hereafter I choose some general subjects for my analysis which can be found in each of the speeches and try to draw a related image of them. Because of the limited extent of the term paper I am not able to deal with all the topics I wanted. So I decided to confine on the American values and the idea Americans have of their nation, on the image they have of their enemies in the war against terrorism and on the justification of the war in Afghanistan. I chose these three topics, because they are strongly connected with each other and therefore it is possible to draw a related image of the U.S.A. seeing their war on terrorism. I do not deal with stylistic methods used in the speeches in detail, because they are not of such an importance for the topics I chose and as I said before I have only a limited space available. For the same reason I do not cope with the image which is presented of the attacks and of America’s allies, for example, but in my opinion they follow from the three subjects I chose and which I regard as the most important ones in the speeches.
At 7:58 a.m. local time the United Airlines Flight 175 departed Boston for Los Angeles. After takeoff the Boeing 767 was hijacked and diverted to New York. The same happened to American Airlines Flight 11, another Boeing 767 which left Boston for Los Angeles at 7:59 a.m.. At 8:01 a.m. the United Airlines Flight 93 departed Newark, N. J. for San Francisco and 9 minutes later the American Airlines Flight 77 left Washington for Los Angeles. Both Boeings 757 were hijacked after takeoff. Then, at 8:45 a.m., the American Flight 11 crashed into the North Tower of the World Trade Centre in New York and about 15 minutes later the second Boeing 767 crashed into the South Tower. What first seemed to be a single accident, now revealed itself as an assassination. As reaction to the attacks the U.S. Federal Aviation Administration had all New York area airports shut down and after 20 minutes, at 9:21 a.m., all the bridges and tunnels leading into New York City were closed, while all domestic flights were grounded. Then, at 9:45 a.m., the American Flight 77 from Washington crashed into the Pentagon, which resulted in the White House and other ministries having to be evacuated. At the same time as the evacuation took place, at 10:05 a.m., the South Tower of the World Trade Centre collapsed and a few minutes later happened the same to a large section of one side of the Pentagon. Shortly after the second Boeing 757, United Flight 93, crashed in a wooden area about 80 miles south of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, after passengers confronted the hijackers. And at 10:28 a.m. the North Tower of the World Trade Centre collapsed. In the sequel of these events the state of emergency was pronounced and the whole air traffic was shut down for the first time in U.S. history.
Thousands of people died on this day. The victims were not only the people in the aeroplanes or in the World Trade Centre, but also hundreds of New York City firemen and policemen who died when they were trying to rescue workers while the Twin Towers collapsed.
After the events of 11th September 2001 the U.S. military was placed on high alert and the search for the responsible was going full blast. Two days after the attacks the Secretary of State, Colin Powell, identified Osama bin Laden as the prime suspect and the United States decided to take action against him with a sustained military campaign. Meanwhile the air travel resumed and one day later, on 14th September, the Justice Department released the names of the 19 hijackers. The Taliban regime of Afghanistan, where bin Laden comes from, warned of revenge if America would be going to attack it for harbouring the terrorist-leader, whereas Pakistan, a neighbouring country of Afghanistan, agreed to the full list of U.S. demands for possible military strikes. On 17th September the Wall Street started trading for the first time since the disaster. The next day, Taliban leaders call on Muslims to wage holy war on America if it would start any attacks, whereupon the Pentagon ordered combat aircraft to bases in Persian Gulf. Although the U.S.A. started to place troops near Afghanistan and although Islamic clerics urged bin Laden to voluntarily leave the country, the Taliban leaders refused to hand over the terrorist and ordered instead troops to the mountains on the border to Pakistan. As a reaction to these actions the Pentagon called more and more soldiers to active duty and prepared itself for a war. On 30th September the Taliban said for the first time explicitly that Osama bin Laden was still be in Afghanistan and was be kept in a secret location, after they before had only talked about communication-problems which would not allow them to give advise to the terrorist-leader to leave the country. One day later $6 million in assets were blocked and 50 bank accounts frozen as countries joined the U.S. effort to stop the flow of money to terrorist networks. Moreover the anti- Taliban alliance in northern Afghanistan and the former Afghan king agreed to convene an emergency council as a first step towards forming a new government. On 5th October a man in Florida died after failing to respond to antibiotics for inhalation anthrax. He should be the first victim of a wave of bioterrorist-attacks which mainly plagued the U.S.A.. On 7th October American and British forces unleashed missile attacks against Taliban targets and bin Laden’s training camps inside Afghanistan. Also the Afghan opposition launched strikes. The war in Afghanistan had begun, but for many weeks there were no successes to achieve. Instead of making progress there, the anthrax virus killed more and more people in America and on 31st October a New Yorker hospital worker became the first anthrax death not linked to the postal service or the new media. In a letter sent to Al-Jazeera TV, Osama bin Laden one day later urged fellow Muslims to rise up against the “Christian Crusade”. The war in Afghanistan went on and on 6th November 2001 Germany committed 3900 soldiers to the fight against terrorism. Finally, on 9th November the anti-Taliban forces made progress and captured the strategic northern Afghan city of Mazar-e-Sharif. Then a video from late October appeared which showed Osama bin Laden saying that the WTC had been a “legitimate target” and that the hijackers had been “blessed by Allah”. Two days later, on 12th November 2001, the world was shocked again. The American Airlines Flight 587 flying from New York Cities Kennedy Airport to the Dominican Republic crashed into a residential neighbourhood in Queens, N.Y., only minutes after takeoff. Fortunately, this disaster, in contrast to 11th September, turned out to be an accident. The same day, the Taliban forces unexpectedly deserted the capital of Kabul at dawn after a series of stunning military victories by the opposition in the north over the past several days. Kandahar and Koduz, which fell on 26th November after a 12 day siege and summary executions of enemy soldiers finally into the hands of the Northern Alliance, became the last two strongholds of the Taliban. On 29th November the Northern Alliance and a group of exiles loyal to the former king agreed to a transitional government to rebuild Afghanistan until more conclusive talks could be convened in the spring.
In his speech of September 11th 2001 President George W. Bush talks about the attacks that took place on this day. At the beginning he sums up what has happened, but he does not really inform about the details (“The pictures of aeroplanes flying into buildings, fires burning, huge structures collapsing have filled us with disbelief, terrible sadness and a quiet, unyielding anger.”). After this short introduction he deals with the question why America was the aim of these terrorist attacks which he answers with the thesis that the U.S.A. were “the brightest beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world”. Then Bush declares that America will not give up (“cannot touch the foundation of America”, “cannot dent the steel of American resolve”), but bring the terrorists to justice. Now, the most important thing was to help the victims of the attacks and to try to keep the normal way of life. The President ends his speech with a prayer for the people concerned and an encouraging passage of Psalm 23 (“Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil for you are with me.”).
In his statement of 16th September 2001 President Bush does not only make an interview, but he also answers questions. He mentions that America, although it is momentary still shocked by the attacks, will never give in, what he expresses with the words: “Our nation was horrified, but it’s not going to be terrorised.” To supply evidence for this thesis Bush mentions that the U.S.A. were still a leading world power relating to its military and its economy (“best farmers and ranchers in the world”, “most innovative entrepreneurs in the world”). As a consequence of this statement the question is asked if President Bush were not afraid of recession as an after-effect to this crisis, but he assured that this will not be the case, since Congress and White House work together and since much money have already been dedicated to New York, New Jersey and Connecticut to quickly rebuild New York. In doing so it was shown that America is “still the strongest nation in the world”. Bush declares that he has “great faith in the resilience of the economy” and that his assumption is going to be confirmed when the markets open the next day and people go back to work. Then he emphasises that there was no doubt about Osama bin Laden being the responsible for the terrorist attacks of 11th September.
The United States are supported in their fight against terrorism by many nations including Pakistan, India, Saudi Arabia and Russia. Although he is not allowed to detail specifically what strategies and tactics are going to be used in the war against terrorism, because the lives of the people who are involved in it have to be protected, Bush informs about the conversation he had with the leader of Pakistan who is willing to co- operate with America. Being asked about the Attorney General who “is going to ask for enhanced law enforcement authority to surveil and - things to disrupt terrorism that might be planned (…) in the United States” and about the consequences such a permission would have for the rights of the Americans, the President refers to the Attorney General himself who is going talk about this subject himself and remarks that America is not only a “nation of law” and a “nation of civil rights”, but also a “nation under attack” which requires special behaviour. Bush stresses that the terrorist attacks of 11th September are a “new kind of evil” which nobody had ever expected (“No one could have conceivable imagined suicide bombers burrowing into our society and then emerging all in the same day to fly their aircraft - fly U.S. aircraft into buildings full of innocent people - and show no remorse.”). He mentions that the “war against terrorism” is necessary to enable later generations to live in peace and that people have to be patient, because their enemy is a widespread terror organisation which is represented in many countries and that it is going to take a while until “anybody who’s been associated will be brought to justice”.
President George W. Bush makes this speech of 7th October 2001 on the occasion of the military strikes the U.S.A. has begun against the al-Qa’eda terrorist training camps and military installations of the Taliban regime in Afghanistan. He informs the American people that the United States are supported by their “staunch friend” Great Britain and other countries including Canada, Australia, Germany and France, that they have air transit or landing rights in more than 40 countries in the Middle East, Africa, Europe and Asia and that the strikes are only started because the Taliban leaders did not meet the demands America asked for. Then Bush stresses that the war is not directed against the Afghan people or against the Islam, but against terrorism (“The United States of America is a friend of the Afghan people, and we are the friends of almost a billion world-wide who practice the Islamic faith.”). There was no possibility to be neutral in this struggle and every nation would have to make a choice whom they want to collaborate with. But Bush also emphasises that America would be a peaceful nation which has to fight in this war to obtain long-lasting peace (“We did not ask for this mission, but we will fulfil it.”). According to the President the protection of America is very important and that is why the military will have every tool it needs to carry out its duty. The U.S. will not give up, but they will reach their aim and win the war, although many people feel fear because of the events of 11th September.
At the beginning of his speech made on 8th November 2001 President George W. Bush glanced back at the past two months, including 11th September and the following bio- terrorist attacks. In his opinion America has responded to these events with courage and caring, which he tries to verify with several examples. Among other things many new heroes, like the police and fire-fighters who tried to save the victims of the attacks, like the men and women of the armed forces who are fighting in this war and like the postal workers who are threatened by the anthrax virus, have been created whom many thanks is due to. To convince his audience of the necessity of the so-called war against terrorism, the President mentions that the terrorists wanted to kill everybody, Americans, Jews, Christians, and that therefore the only possible reaction could be to confront and to defeat this type of hate. Besides their enemies were the total opposite to the Americans who, according to Bush, valued life, education and the right to speak their minds and who would respect people of all faith, because they welcomed the free practice of religion. Therefore nobody would “judge fellow Americans by appearance, ethnic background or religious faith”. In dependence to this difference of the terrorists Bush declares that they would have to wage a “war to save civilisation itself”, a war which is different from every other America has ever faced. Besides a new era had been entered with the attacks which would require new responsibilities for the government and for the Americans. The security measures are going to become better and an Office of Homeland Security had been created to co-ordinate the efforts to strengthen America’s homeland protections. Besides a new anti-terrorism law has been passed which includes stricter controls for immigration. Also actions like hunting down America’s enemies, creating a better security, helping people who have lost jobs and livelihoods in the attacks and stimulating the economic growth by creating new jobs and making America less dependent on foreign oil are regarded as part of these new responsibilities. The President informs his audience that Afghanistan only was the beginning of a long list of strikes against the world-wide terror-net. He talks about many Americans who try to help in the war against terrorism and gives examples for what the single people can do. In this context many wrong ideas about Americans and the importance of disproving these prejudices by showing to the world the real America with all its good qualities is mentioned. To fulfil this task school children should, according to Bush, write letters of friendship to Muslim children in different countries and college students and people who travel abroad should show the American values, which are going to be defended. According to this statement the President mentions the “spirit of optimism and courage” as an important quality of Americans and refers in this connection to the passengers, and especially to a young man, on Flight 93 who rushed their murderers to save lives on the ground. At the end of his speech Bush stresses that, although not every detail of the battle can be known, America would be going to win it, because its cause would be just.
Americans have a very high opinion of their nation. That is why President Bush speaks of a “fabulous country” (II., l. 29). Moreover he uses many superlatives like “(America) is the brightest beacon for freedom and opportunity in the world” (I., ll. 13-14). This example is not only a proof for the stylistic method, but it also shows two very important American values. Americans set great store by their freedom and for many people all over the world the U.S.A. is a symbol of this claim. In the past America was a British colony and many people from Europe, Asia etc. immigrated to it because they hoped to have better future prospects there than in their native country. People believed that the large part of the land were not owned by anybody and so they started to build up a new future there. Since the majority of immigrants had been very poor in their homeland many of them made a great deal in moving there and for this reason America was called the “Country of unlimited possibilities”. That is why another important value of the US-American people is their opportunity, which is said to enable everybody to work his way up to everything he wants to be. Both of these values, freedom and opportunity, require a certain resolve which is necessary to reach an aim although there are many difficulties to master. For this reason President Bush calls the U.S.A. a “nation of resolve” (II., l. 8) and in connection with this he speaks of a “nation that can’t be cowed by evil-doers” (II., ll. 8-9). Not only determination, but also a kind of courage is necessary if you want to reach a certain aim and that is why this value has such a high rate in America that Bush stresses it repeatedly when he speaks about the reaction of the American population to the attacks of 11th September (IV., l. 17: “America have responded magnificently with courage and caring.”). Besides the President says that, although America “did not ask for this mission”, it “will fulfil it” (III., l. 38), by which he on the one hand refers to the courage which is to be shown by fighting the so-called war against terrorism and by which he on the other hand alludes to a kind of religious order, which can be regarded as a justification for military strikes by the U.S.A.. Following this interpretation a big religiosity can be seen at the Americans, too. Bush shows this value when he, for example, quotes the bible (I., ll. 40-42: “Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I fear no evil for you are with me.”) or says the phrase “God bless America” at the end of his speeches. This characteristic of Americans is also connected with the importance people attach to the military, which is shown by Bush describing a good commander in chief as somebody who “sends America’s sons and daughters into battle in a foreign land only after the greatest care and a lot of prayers” (III., ll. 50-51). The military itself is regarded as “powerful” and “prepared” (I., l. 19), as “dedicated” and “honourable” (III., l. 54). People are proud of it, because it “presents the best of” the United States (III., l. 54). Soldiers, fire-fighters, police etc. symbolise the courage Americans appreciate so much and they perhaps keep a part of the myth of the Wild West alive, because they are a kind of “new heroes” (IV., l. 22). They are one of the reasons why Bush calls the U.S.A. a “mighty giant” (II., l. 117). In the eyes of Americans their country is “the strongest nation in the world” (II., l. 43), not only relating to its military, but also to its economy. For this reason Bush marks the United States as “the best farmers and ranchers” and as “the most innovative entrepreneurs in the world” (II., 30-32), a statement which shows the American patriotism. They are very proud of their country and their values which they want to show to everybody (IV., l. 143: “Flags are flying everywhere: on houses, in store windows, on cars, in lapels.”). So they see themselves as a “welcoming country” (IV., l. 91) which is “full of kind and loving people, people of faith who want freedom and opportunity for people everywhere” (IV., ll. 181-182). For this reason Bush stresses that daring and caring are two of the best American values (see I., ll. 15-16) and that people have to show that prejudices against the United States being “shallow, consumers who care only about getting rich or getting ahead” (IV., ll. 180-181) are wrong and that they in reality are generous and helpful people. Education is appreciated, no matter who it has (see IV., ll. 40-41) and the right to speak the minds (see IV., l. 43) goes hand in hand with the respect of people of all faiths and the free practice of religion (see IV., l. 44). This image of America is supported by it being a “nation of law, a nation of civil rights” (II., l. 86). The population of the U.S.A. set great store by their rights which can be explained by them being a country open to immigrants. When many people of different nationalities with different cultures and faiths live together in immediate neighbourhood it becomes important to define every-ones rights and duties exactly to prevent quarrels. Besides the slavery in the past is for some parts of the population a reason to pay special attention to the adherence of these values. So Bush has to stress that the nation is in an unusual situation at the moment (see IV., l. 12) which requires unusual measures. For this reason the President gave the American military the orders to “do whatever it would take to protect Americans” (II., l. 146-147). The security of the homeland is the most important value of the U.S.A., in this moment but probably ever. Nevertheless, Bush points out that Americans respected life (see IV., l. 105), with which he contrasts his nation with the terrorists against whom he is going to fight.
In his speeches President Bush equates the terrorists of 11th September with the Taliban in Afghanistan. Therefore he mentions that the terrorists oppress the population of Afghanistan by offending against several American values. They would ruthless destroy life (see IV., ll. 38-39) and would free expression take occasion to executions (see IV., ll. 42-43). Besides they would not want women to be educated, to have health care and to leave their homes. These restrictions would, according to Bush, not only be meant for people of other faiths, but also for Muslims (see IV., ll. 44-45). The President does not only just enumerate these characteristics of the Taliban and terrorists, but he always compares them with the American values, by which he expresses that the U.S.A. are the complete opposite of their enemies, whom he describes as “barbaric criminals” (III., ll. 23-24). He criticises the “acts of mass murder” (I., l. 8) committed by the terrorists who “profane a great religion” by killing innocent people in its name (III., ll. 23-24). Such things were, according to Bush, “unprecedented and uncivilised acts” (IV., l. 66) which could only be done by “the very worst of human nature” (I., l. 15). But the President describes the terrorists not only as unscrupulous murders, he also characterises them as cowards. So they were brave enough to fly “U.S. aircraft into buildings full of innocent people” (II., ll. 93-94), but now, as it has become serious, they run and hide themselves in caves (II., 137-138). With this statement the so-called “evil-doers” (II., l. 9) are presented as very contemptible persons to the Americans who esteem courage very much. In his speeches Bush tries to show that there is nothing at the terrorists and the Taliban that is worth to be respected and that could be compared with Americans. Therefore he arrives at the conclusion that his enemies in the war against terrorism are of no kind of civilisation which makes them even more dangerous.
The main justification of President Bush concerning the war in Afghanistan consists in the differences between the Taliban and terrorists on the one hand and the Americans on the other hand. Bush pointed out that the enemies they fight against are nearly the opposite of the people living in the U.S.A., he speaks of “barbaric criminals” (III., l. 23), of people who hate everything America stands for (see II., l. 115). This characteristic has led them to “acts of mass murder” (I., l. 8),caused them to carry out the attacks of 11th September during which many people died. The differences between them and the U.S.A. and their allies were, according to Bush, so strong, that one could not assign them to any kind of civilisation. Therefore the danger which is radiated by these enemies is of such an extent that people cannot ignore it. Not America would begin a war, but “people have declared war on America” (II., l. 28) and as “a nation under attack” (II., ll. 86-87) the U.S.A. has to react. It is, according to Bush, important to protect the American people and therefore he gave the military the “orders necessary to protect Americans” (II., l. 146). The best way to safeguard the security of the homeland and to make sure that the later generations are able to live their life in peace was to wage the war against terrorism. By doing this it becomes possible to bring the responsibles to justice (see III., l. 17) which would be the main aim of the fight. And, according to Bush, there is no question about Osama bin Laden being the prime suspect (see II., ll. 47-50). The Taliban were informed about this topic by the Americans who demanded to close terrorist camps, to hand over the leaders of the al-Qa’eda network and to return all foreign nationals unjustly detained in their countries (see III., ll. 9-11), but “none of these demands were met” (III., l. 12) and for this reason military strikes against Afghanistan are justified. Besides President Bush speaks of a mission that has to be fulfilled by the Americans (III., l. 38), by which he gives the impression that a kind of divine order forms the basis of the war. An impression that is strengthened by the formulation “crusade against terror” (II., l. 96). Crusades were platoons against enemies of the Christian faith and against heretics and took place during the Middle Ages. By referring to these actions Bush tries to give a special importance to his war against terrorism. This speaks in very plain terms especially when he says that America “wage a war to save civilisation itself” (IV., l. 48). The war against terrorism is not only a reaction on the attacks of 11th September, it is a kind of mission to protect the world. According to Bush the attacks do not only concern one single country, but everyone who wants to live in peace and security. For the first time an aeroplane was not only hijacked, but used as a weapon. With this deed a new era has begun which requires new responsibilities for every person (see IV., ll. 55-56) and therefore the war against terror has a special importance. It does not only contain a revenge of the attacks of 11th September and a liberation of the oppressed people in Afghanistan (see III., l. 18), it wants to strengthen the world-security lasting. According to this analysis President Bush’s main justification for the strikes in Afghanistan is the importance of the protection of America and the remaining world against unscrupulous and uncivilised terrorists who recoil from nothing to reach their aim.
In his speeches concerning the terror attacks on New York and the war in Afghanistan George W. Bush sometimes uses critical formulations. The word “crusade”, for example, gave world-wide rise to criticism. It is the term for platoons against enemies of the Christian faith and against heretics which took place during the Middle Ages. The official reason for these actions usually was the liberation of the holy places in Palestine from the control of the pagans. But the real causes for the crusades are often to be found in self-interests of their leaders who hoped to have advantages of them. Therefore much injustice happened and many people died in bloody battles. Although the crusaders were not always successful, it was mainly the Arabian world which suffered from the crusades. By using the term of these platoons while talking about his war against terrorism Bush gives the impression that he planned a war against the Islamic faith, an impression which he probably did not want to give. As I mentioned in my analysis, I suppose that the President just wanted to stress that his “war against terror” is the most important task to fulfil in this “new era”. But this bad chosen formulation gave not only cause to criticism, it also presented itself the opportunity to the terrorists and to the Taliban to use it as a part of their propaganda. Therefore they urged their followers to rise up against the “Christian Crusade” and to go to the “Holy War”, an after-effect which is surely not intended by the President. But the term “crusade” was not the only formulation which set me thinking. I also wondered about Bush’s special liking for the use of the superlative. So he always presented the terrorists and Taliban as the “worst of human nature”, whereas the U.S.A. seemed to be perfect. I traced this black-and-white painting back to the American patriotism and the war which had to be fought and tried to be objective, but, as I said, this observation had set me thinking. In my opinion the American patriotism is exaggerated, which probably depends on my point of view. Germany is a country which cannot be proud of its history, whereas the U.S.A. do not have the experience of the National Socialism. In contrast to that they are proud of what they have reached only during a few years in comparison with Europe and Asia. But they often forget about themselves also doing bad things in the past, like in Vietnam and their systematic extermination of many Native Americans for example. In my opinion the American patriotism is a bit suspect and I see some kind of danger in it, because it is so strong. Besides I am not sure if everything President Bush says is really true. He mentions for example that the U.S.A. would be the “best farmers and ranchers” and the “most innovative entrepreneurs in the world”. As an investigation of this subject would unfortunately go beyond the scope of this analysis I was not able to deal with it. But I think that it could perhaps be a good theme for another skilled work.
Versicherung der selbstständigen Erarbeitung
Hiermit versichere ich, dass ich die Arbeit selbstständig angefertigt, keine anderen als die angegebenen Hilfsmittel benutzt habe und die Stellen der Facharbeit, die im Wortlaut oder im Wesentlichen Inhalt aus den anderen Werken entnommen wurden, mit genauer Quellenangabe kenntlich gemacht habe. Verwendete Internetseiten sind dem Lehrer vollständig zur Verfügung gestellt worden.
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