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Wissenschaftliche Studie, 2012
1.1Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.4 Objective of the study
1.4.1 General objective
1.4.2 Specific objectives
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6. Scope of the study
1.7 Description of the study Area
1.7.3 Socioeconomic Features
1.7.4 Physical feature
1.8 Definition of the terms
2. Review of Related literature
2.1 Concept of conflict
2.2 Sources of conflict
2.3 Need for conflict resolution
2.4 Methods of conflict resolution
3. RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design and Methodology
3.2. Sources of Data
3.3. Data Gathering Instruments and Procedure
3.3.2 Focus Group Discussion
3.4 Sampling size and technique
3.5 Document Analysis
3.6 Data Analysis
3.7 Ethical consideration
4. DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
4.1 Types of conflict
4.1.1 Economic conflict
4.1.2 Social conflict
4.1.3 Land Conflict
4.2 Traditional Conflict Resolution Mechanism the Awi People Use
4.3 Challenges of Traditional Conflict Resolution Mechanism
4.4 Methods of Traditional conflict Resolution Mechanism
4.5. Challenges to the Practice of Areknsanti Traditional Conflict Resolution Mechanism
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Teshale Aklilu was born in 1987 particularly at Debrezeit , Ethiopia. He attended both his primary and secondary school at Debrezeit . He also followed his B.ED and M.A at Bahir Dar University in history, since 2007-2013. He published around one research articles at Technium Science Reputable Journal. Currently, he have been serving as Lecturer , researcher at woldia college of Teachers education and now student of PhD at Bahirdar university in history department .
I am indebted to all those individuals and institution of Woldia College of Teachers Education that provided me assistance to complete this topic. I would like to express my sincere and whole hearted gratitude to my topic my friend Teferi Asfaw for his genuine, professional and technical advice and valuable criticism. My heart-felt thanks goes to my brother and sister (Sileshi Aklilu and Bezawit Aklilu ) who in one way or the other shared my pains in the course of the study. I would like to extend my thanks to Gadisa Desa who helped me in the overall primary data collection process. Finally, it gives me a great pleasure to acknowledge Embet Aklilu and Yimegnshal Shiferawu for their cooperation to finalize the study.
TRADITIONAL CONFLICT RESOLUTION MECHANISMS IN ETHIOPIA: WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION TO AREKNSANTI /TRADTIONAL JUDGE/ IN CHAGNI WOREDA By
Teshale Aklilu Gebretsadik : Senior History Lecture and Researcher at Woldia College of Teachers Education, Ethiopia
Conflict is not a new phenomenon in the history of human being. It can be understood as engagement in a fight or possible confrontation between two or more parties as aspiring towards incompatible or competitive means or ends. This study reveals the role of Areknsanti as a traditional conflict resolution mechanism in handling conflicts with special attention to Chagni woreda , this study is intended to assess not only the function of Areknsanti but also the examination of the issues dealing with the enforceability of the decisions passed by the traditional conflict resolution mechanism of Areknsanti the dynamics/changes of the process, the strengths and weaknesses as well as challenges of the institution of Areknsanti which are not addressed by the other researches. , Qualitative research methodology and case study design was employed for it ,both was found to be appropriate to assess the role of traditional institution of Arkensanti in handling conflicts in the study area. The collected data were analyzed through thematic analysis. Researcher use representative sampling technique. In addition to this, researcher used both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of the study were interviews conducted with the Arkensanti/traditional judges of the woreda, the community elders, the court leaders (judges) and the conflicting parties who settle their disputes in the institution. The secondary sources of the study are document analysis. The researcher used both sources to assess the enforceability of the institution, strengths and weaknesses as well as challenges and its role in solving different conflicts of the area. Conflict of the study area emanated from two categories of economic ones and social conflict on the other side. Accordingly, the findings of the study show that the incorporation of traditional methods of conflict resolution and cultural values could greatly contribute to restoration of peace stability. So in Awi zone especially Chagni Woreda conflict resolution mechanisms have played a great role for the development of modern institution of the study area. The institution of Areknsanti works together with the formal court in handling/settling conflicts in the community. Inaddtion to this, Traditional conflict resolution mechanism in these communities is widely respected within its culture. Elders in the society deal with various issues, responsibilities and mainly their duty is dealing with settling or solving disputes among different group of the society in the study area. These sections describe various types of conflicts. However, chagni town community strongly believes on traditional conflict resolution mechanism of Areknsanti as a better option to court proceeding for the following reasons. The institution of Areknsanti is important as it is better positioned to produce win-win result which is instrumental for conflicting parties’ future cordial relationship. Arenknsanti is also less costly and time saving. The researcher recommended the following ones .There is need to give prominent role place of conflict mechanism for women in traditional conflict resolution mechanism. People should get experience from the elder methods of administering conflicts and keeping peace and stability in the study area. Elder should transfer methods of traditional conflict resolution mechanism and rule and regulation for the next generation
Key words: Areknsanti, Conflict, Traditional conflict resolution
Conflict is some form of friction, disagreement discord arising with in a group when beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or unacceptable to one or more members of another group. There are recognized opposing interests between parties in a situation and there must be a belief by each side that other one is acting or will act against them (M. Afzalur Rakhim, 1979)
Conflict is not a new phenomenon in the history of human being. It can be understood as engagement in a fight or possible confrontation between two or more parties as aspiring towards incompatible or competitive means or ends. In its definition conflict is natural and unavoidable part of human existence that is a nature disagreement resulting from individual or group that differ in attitude, belief, value or needs Francis (2006)
In the world there are many conflict can arise in different group of society or the same group are known as intra or enter group conflict and it is the struggle over value or claims to status and scarce resource such as economy and political power. Almost all over the peoples of the world regardless of their location in time and space have their own methods to solve disputes and achieving resolution of their differences (Gulliver 1979). Gulliver states that every society has its own mechanism of solving conflict. Conflict management refers to the long term management of intractable conflict. And label for the variety of ways by which people handle conflict standing up for what they consider to be right and against what they consider to be wrong. Conflict management is often considered to be distinct from conflict resolution. And it may occur between warring parties who contest an incompatibility. Nature of incompatibility can be territorial or governmental but warring party must be a government of a state or any opposition organization or alliance of organization that use armed force to promote its position in the incompatibility in an intrastate or interstate armed conflict.
Conflict appears to be an integral component of human performance in diverse activity. The term could be classified based on different criteria and variables; this creates difficulty in formulating an operational and exact definition. According to Slabbert (2004). Conflict is process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negative affected.
Ethiopia is the country in which various ethnic groups live together for long period of time. In Ethiopia conflict is inevitable and varies from time to time and there have its own mechanism for solving disputes. As conflict is inevitable these ethnic groups have experienced conflicts of the various types at different times. Conflict can be understood as a fight or possible confrontation between more than two parties aspiring towards incompatible or competitive means 0r ends (Montagu 1968). Conflict is a condition of the disagreeing in an interaction process and usually occurs as a result of clash of interest between different groups of people involved in some form of relationship.
In Awi society has its own History, Culture, Tradition and way of life contribute the survival of the community. On these area conflict can rise in different time and place in different cause
Like economic, political, and socio cultural aspects of the society. Land conflict is the main source of this area.So researcher geared conducting traditional conflict resolution mechanism by giving a special attention to arkensanti at chagni woreda
Researcher was deal the conflict in our daily workplace at home and school in personal and business relations with people can disagreeing in different reason for fulfill his or her personal satisfaction. People solve conflict with mutual respect to achieve possible outcome of development process. Political and economic inequality between groups has associated with conflict.
One of the aim of solving conflict is to promote and establish peace through cooperation as means of preventing conflict. In today’s complex society. Conflict is a common to see when communication breakdown difference increase and arise. To solve disputes is the main important. However, the main reason research selects this topic is to show the disputes among the study area. This research is done by some researcher in southern parts of Ethiopia like Abebe Demoz he studies conflict as a general and all types of conflict but researcher had been study mainly focus with the fulfilling his gap by, geographical variation and identifying selectively about land conflict in the study area because the communities currently facing on land based conflict in large and the types of conflict that is more about land conflict and how resolved in this community.
In Awi community living in northwestern part of regional state of Amara in chagni woreda practice their own way of conflict settlement. Customarily they have their own way of conflict resolution mechanism aiming to address the cause of conflict and seek to build solidarity and belongingness for themselves and for peace full good relationships.
1. What type of conflict occurs in the study areas?
2. What are the Traditional Conflict Resolution mechanisms the people use?
3. What are the challenges of Traditional Conflict Resolution mechanism?
4. What are the possible methods of conflict resolution mechanism?
This research has the following general and specific objectives
The general objective of this research was to assess Traditional Conflict Resolution mechanism o f Awi zone in chagni community
Depending research questions the researcher developed the following specific objectives
To identify the types of conflict
To explore the traditional conflict resolution mechanism of the study area
To identify the challenges of the traditional conflict resolution mechanism
To discuss the methods of conflict resolution mechanism
This study was signify to provide valuable information about the conflict resolution mechanism among Awi community especially Chagni Woreda and study of people related to conflict settlement mechanism. Finding the study can be used to concern the knowledge and values of the society and community and to contribute to increase conflict resolution mechanism among this community.
The scope of this study was focus on the conflict resolution mechanism of the Awi zone particularly in Chagni Woreda and surrounding. This area is bounded by culture, tradition and history of Chagni people. Researcher deal more important about case of Awi practice in the Chagni Woreda. So researcher focus on land conflict of this area. Because of land conflict is the main sources of conflict in the study area. People can make a conflict in everyday and every time with the members of community to the farmland.
Chagni is one of the towns of the north western Ethiopia located on the Amhara region of Awi people of north western Gojam and its elevation is 1583 meters above sea level. It is the administrative center of guangua woreda. It is also located or bordered with south and west by Benishangul Gumuz region, on the north by danigla, on the North West by Feggetalequama, banja shakudad and on the east by Ankasha Guagusa
Based on the 2007 National Census conducted by the central statistical agency of Ethiopia /CSA/ these Woreda has a total population of 223066 whom 111172 are men and 111894 are women 31489 are urban are inhabitants and 191577 are rural inhabitants with an area of 2305.44 square kilometers. Fertility Rare is high increasing from time to time and child mortality rate is decreasing from, when fertility rate increases child mortality rate are also increase.
Majority of inhabitants practiced Ethiopian Orthodox Christian with 81.81% are Christian and 14.59 are Muslims and 1.64 are others.
The main occupation of the rural areas are Farming, agriculture with secondary economic activity like pottery maker, weaver, and tanner. IN Some people Weaver and Tanner are common economic activity one farmer engages some equipment’s like Axe, plough. Teff is the mostly huge crops in this area and Cattle keeper in rural are common. Economic activity of urban inhabitants includes Merchant, Carpenter, and Metal workers and Blacksmith are common. Day workers are more than in rural. Areas than urban areas Social structure of this society is practiced more of Extended family types and monogamy marriage system are common. Kinship is counted under father side.
Topography of this area consists of high plateau with an elevation ranging from 1583 meters above sea level and this area is generally land of plain, mountain and steep slope of the landscape. Chagni is a town in North Western Ethiopia. Located in the Agew Awi Zone of the Amhara Region, this town has a longitude and latitude of Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten WikiMiniAtlas10°57′N 36°30′E / 10.950°N 36.500°E / 10.950; 36.500 and an elevation of 1583 meters above sea level. It is the administrative center of Guangua woreda; in the past Chagni was the administrative center of the Metekel awraja
This map was deleted by the editors due to copyright issues
Map of Amhara Region in Ethiopia sources https://www.bing.com/images/search chagni woreda
This area has more than three rainy season and most of rainy falls during a period of June, July and August. This zone is very high rainy season during summer.
Awi language in older publication also called awiya in an central Cushitic language spoken by the awi people living in the central gojjam in northwestern Ethiopia. Thise language is official working language of the area and Amharic is a secondary language in this area. Most speakers of language live in Agaw Awi zone of amhara region but there are also communities speaking language in various areas of metekal zone of benishangul gumuz region until recently.
Conflict = is some form of friction, disagreement or discord arising with in a group when beliefs or actions of one or more members of the group are either resisted by or incompatible to one or more members of the another group.
Resolution= is a system or mechanism of solving disputes among study area.
Chagni= it is also known as kadamawi haileselesie bar or it is the town in north western Ethiopia located in Agaw or Awi zone of Amara reg
The word conflict drives from the Latin word Confligere which means literary to strike together. It is impossible for two physical objects occupy the same space. Conflict happens to appear when individuals or group have incompatible interest or goal. It also definedas differently by different education in the field of education When one has become really an obstacle or shows a tendency to become so far another to meet his or her needs, conflict is than more likely breakout Conflict could also be a result of human greedy. For the reason that scarcity of any resources is always a fact of life there would always a persistent compition to have greedy control over these resources. Many scholars define conflict as any situation or process in which two or more social entire are linked by at least one form of antagonistic interaction. Conflict is a struggle in which the aim of conflict in parties not only to gain desirable value but also to neutralize injury or eliminate their reveals. (Lewis Coser).
Conflict can have many different outcomes one side changed, one side eliminated, both side changed, neither side changed nor rarely both side eliminated (Ibid). It refers to condition in which one identifiable group of human beings weather tribal, ethnic, linguistic, cultural religious, socio economic political or other engaged in conscious opposition to one or more identifiable group are pursing what appears to be incompatible goal (P. Faltz Graf, 1990).
Conflict is regarded as undesirable in many societies. In its violent form it claims the lives of many people destroy property and diverts human as well as financial resources away from development (Ibid). Conflict exists in different forms mainly of two forms direct and in direct types of violence depending on their magnitude and manifestation. Direct violence is the most out ward, visible and easily identifiable sort of conflict. It is just like a direct physical confrontation or clash between individuals. It could also be manifested in a form of war between nation or group of different interests. On the otherhand indirect violence which is similarly referred to as structural violence, appears to be in a form of invisible and relatively identifiable social structure.
Throughout the history of the history of the study of conflict whether the aggressive behavior is an inborn quality or reaction to social, political and economic factors in where lay the controversy among the scholars (Collier, 1975).
Conflict has deep rooted with human need to aggressive. Early psychologist said that human beings are aggressive animals by nature. Basic idea behind violence is that rooted in our nature or part of human nature for tendency to act as aggressively is part of human nature (Freud 1998). Early reviews in the field of conflict resolution identifies a large numbers of schemes for describing sources or types of conflict. One of the early theorists on conflict created a typology that distinguishes three main sources of conflict economic, value and power. Economic conflict includes competing motives to attain scarce resources and emotion of each party are directed towards maximizing its gain. Value conflict involves incompatibility in a ways of life ideologies, preference, principles and practices that people believe in international conflict. Whereas power conflict occurs when each party wishes to maintain or maximize the amount of influence that it exerts in relationship and the social setting.
Ethiopia is a country which has strong cultural need for conflict resolution has contributed to the development of all society. According to Madhan (2003) what is the important, however is that need for conflict resolution offer grater prospect for success in search for path towards peace and cooperation over Ethiopian economy. Common security threat is often a basis for strong cooperation. Hence making peace between group or individual is actually related to development and integration for community. International peace cannot secure by merely trying to wish a way conflict of dispute among stats which are unbillable. Peace implies many different things to different people. Some may identify peace as a lack conflict of any serious kind so the out of violence. Peace can also mean coexist once of different culture and societies to be obtained by perceive peace in terms of equity development and access to existential necessities of life.
There are different approaches to deal with the incompatibility that exist. Conflict can result in distractive outcome or creative ones depending on the approach that is taken. These will involve a distribution of resources or power that is more equitable than before in creating a large pool of resources or forms of influence then before. Creative out comes are more probable when parties are independent each having some degree of independence autonomy from which to influence the other rather than one party being primarily independent on the other. Interdependence there are three general strategies have been identified that the parties may take towards dealing with their conflict; win-lose, lose-lose and win-win. Win-lose approach is all too common people learn the behaviors of distractive conflict early in life competition on dominance, aggressive and defense permeate many of our social relationship from family to the school playground.
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