Presentation / Essay (Pre-University), 1996, 5 Pages
Presentation / Essay (Pre-University)
Autorin: Tamara Erkinger
Dogs - PORTRAIT OF THREE BREEDS
weight: 3-9kg; height: 20-25cm; colour: red, yellow, black,
brown, grey and white.
There are three different types of dachshunds: dogs with short
hair, with "wire" hair and with long hair. The dachshund is a
very old breed, the Teutons*)3 called this dog "bibarhunt", and
the first written mention of it was found in scripts of the 9th
and 10th century.
The dachshund is a hound, but today owners all over the world
have got these dogs because they don′t have special needs and
they are friendly.
weight: 15-27kg; height: 50-59cm; colour: white, grey, black.
When the Eskimos went from Siberia to Alaska and Greenland, they
took their dogs, which they called "chuchis", with them. For the
Eskimos their dogs were the most valuable possession they had
got. They used the Siberian husky for protecting their
property, for pulling their sleighs and for walking along
with their children. The Siberian husky is very friendly and
confiding. Up to now a lot of people take the husky for
sleigh-races, because it needs very much exercise.
weight: 22-40kg; height: 55-65cm; colour: black, brown, grey,
In the year 1899 Max von Stephanitz bought a five-year-old dog,
called "Horand von Grafrath", which is known as the first German
shepherd, at a little dog show. Since then this dog has become
very popular in Germany. In the 1st World War it was used as a
"first-aid dog", which was looking for hurt soldiers. After
the war, American and English soldiers took German shepherds
with them. Until the 1970s these dogs were called "Alsatians" in
Britain. Today this dog is used by the police, for protecting
people and houses, for leading blind people and for looking for
drugs and hurt people in the snow.
HANDOUT FOR REPORT "DOGS"
In the time between 9500 and 7500 BC, man started to catch and
domesticate wolves, which are known as the ancestors of our
It′s not really sure because of what reasons people had got dogs
in that time, but probably some dogs were used for pulling
sleighs, others were used for tending the cattle. Later there
existed hounds and greyhounds, too.
The beginning of the breeding, some thousand years ago, was
influenced by the aspect of practicality. As hounds quick, slim
animals were needed, as fighting dogs big, very strong animals,
as sheepdogs calm and agile dogs and finally as companions for
the whole family small dogs were preferred. Nowadays there are
more than 500 different breeds. Some of the first breeds still
exist today, but the most kinds of dogs were brought into being
in the second half of the 19th century. The different physical
qualities and characters are laid down in the standard of the
FCI, a world wide organisation, which was founded in 1911.
Today people have got a lot of reasons for having a dog. But in
most cases it shall give its owner pleasure, and the best known
dog is the German shepherd.
Now I want to tell you about the development of puppies in the
first six months of their lives. First a dog′s behaviour results
from instinct most, but later on it learns a lot and the world
around it influences its development.
The first three weeks: The puppy is born after 63 days of
pregnancy. Its eyes and ears are still closed, but it can smell
and feel warmth. After its birth the puppy starts learning by
looking for and finally finding milk. The second thing, that
new-born dogs learn, is that they have to lie together in a
group so that it′s warm. When a puppy is three weeks old, its
eyes open and its ears start hearing.
4th - 8th week ("forming stage"): Now the dog starts to explore
the world in which it lives. What it experiences in that time
will stay in its brain for its whole life. The puppy gets to
know its family and the human being. The latter is very
important because the dog should think of man as belonging to
the same species as the dogs so that its life together with
people will be without big problems. If a young dog doesn′t have
any contact with people, it will never be as friendly and
confiding as a dog which was formed. At this age the puppy also
learns how other dogs react in different situations.
8th - 14th week ("rehabilitation stage"): At this age the dog
has to integrate in a community. It shows a big docility now and
shows a high play instinct. When the puppy is ten weeks old it
should be together with its new owner already. For the owner it
is significant that he/she spends a lot of time with the dog now
because the more an owner is playing with the dog in that time,
the better their relationship will be. But the puppy also has to
be educated now and it should follow the same rules as an adult
4th - 6th month: In the pack the ranking develops now. The young
wolves know, that a pack is only able to survive if it has got a
good leader. They don′t mind submitting and they enjoy the
security that a good leader gives them. When they are six months
old, every wolf has got its own place in the pack. The dog also
wants to know where its place in the family is and so it starts
testing its owner to find out if he/she is able to lead the
"pack". For the man it is important that he stays consequent by
following his rules.
After the first six months little dogs are not puppies any more
and they reach sexual maturity. But not until one year they are
fully grown and even not until two years they can be called an
If you decide to buy a dog, bear in mind that it′s not an animal
that you can simply put in a cage like a bird or a rabbit. You
can′t let it alone either, for the whole day, like a cat. A dog
needs a lot of time and the costs for food and vet and all the
other things you will need, may be high. You also have to
decide if you are ready to take responsibility for more than 10
years. And not least you will have to educate your dog, which
can be very difficult and time-consuming. Finally a dog will
bring a lot of dirt into your flat. Should you still be sure
that a dog is the right pet for you, after good consideration,
the whole family has to agree. So never give any pet as a
present. At least there should be said that not just pure bred
dogs are friendly and beautiful, also crossbred animals and dogs
from animal homes need someone who looks after them.
That the dog is called "the best friend of man" is even marked
by the great number of famous dogs, e.g. like Rintintin, Lassie,
Snoopy, Beethoven and Rex, which are heroes of comics, films and
But there are not just imaginary heroes. The best known St
Bernard before the character of "Beethoven" was created, was
"Barry", who saved the life of 40 people. The 41st thought,
Barry was a wild animal and killed him. Barry′s monument stands
at the dog-cemetery of Paris and his body is in the natural
history museum of Bern.
ancestors - Vorfahren
submit - unterordnen
sleighs - Schlitten
consideration - _berlegung
tend - hüten
pure bred - reinrassig
hounds - Jagdhunde
crossbred dogs - Mischlinge
greyhounds - Laufhunde
breeding - Zucht
sheepdogs - Hirtenhunde
explore - erkunden
get to know - kennenlernen
pack - Rudel
ranking - Rangordnung
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