11 Seiten, Note: A+
Scope of the Academic Study
Background of the Academic Study
The Problem and Purpose Statements of the Academic Study
Alterations in Weather Conditions Influences on Agronomic Production
Land Tenure System Special Effects on Agrarian Production
Reviews of Financial literature on Farm Production
There are three major areas envisioned for this academic study, climate changes, land tenure systems, and agricultural financing. Agriculture is the largest source of employment and its development is a priority to food security (Minagri, 2009). Minagri, (2009) indicated that agriculture was a major foreign exchange earner. However, Maritz, (2011) and World Bank, (2009) argued that agriculture was not supported and encouraged.
The United Nations reviled that the prolonged periods of drought affected Africans (United Nations [UN] 2008, 2009). Climate change impact destroyed farming systems and communities in Africa due to vulnerability (Hassan, 2010). Headey, Bezemer and Hazell, (2010) postulated that Africa has yet to achieve its own farming capacities, which will be an effective tool for job creation and poverty reduction. Binswanger-Mkhize and McCalla, (2010) indicated that, in Africa, the major agricultural growth opportunities will rely on the regional and national markets. African countries will have to support economic growth through sound macroeconomic policies with improvements in the investment climate, land tenure systems, and agricultural financing (Binswanger-Mkhize & McCalla, 2010: World Bank, 2009).
Jones and Thornton (2009) commented that the effects of climate change negatively affected crop yields by 20% in Africa. Armah, Yawson, Yengoh, Odoi, and Afrifa, (2010) confirmed that Sub-Sahara Africa was considered to be most vulnerable to climate variability. Van Aalst, Cannon, and Burton, (2008) advocated for the subsistence farmers to accept climatic change conditions in lieu of agricultural production. Nii Ardey Codjoe and Owusu, (2011) referred to the understanding of the indigenous farmers' local perspective as critical to the development of important strategies of reducing the adverse impacts of climatic change on food production.
On land tenure systems and conflicts resolution Braimoh, (2009) postulated that the macroeconomic vicissitudes should support the commercial coordination of agriculture land. Jayne, Mather and Mghenyi, (2010) advocated that land dissemination pattern should not disturb the potential of crop technology and agricultural input application. Toulmin, (2009) contrarily testified that native organizations have undertaken intermediate forms of land registration which has shown to be effective in many places.
Toulmin, (2009) argued that if there are funds and institutional capacity to provide formal land title registration there should be the distinguishable local diversity in managing complex disputes. Peters (2009) stated that agricultural land use and controls has brought conflicts and disturbances to peaceful communities. In support of Peters (2009) statement, these conflicts and unforeseen circumstances have also disrupted farming activities. Braimoh, (2009) the central government needed to learn from the indigenous farmers about the problems pertaining to the land tenure systems. Yaro, (2010) advised for a new architecture of land rights which should be assigned by an assembly process, controlled by the traditional institutions, and the state.
The agricultural sector contributed one-fifth of total gross domestic product and about 12% of the total export earnings for the African communities (Magadza, 2003). The African countries have abundant land, labor, and natural resources (Chikhuri, 2013). However, these countries agricultural systems are underperforming due to the climate change, land tenure systems, and financing (Magadza, 2003).
Auken and Zhang (2009) commented on deprived capitalization as the main cause of small farms’ failures. Appiah (2013) postulated that, successful provision of farm finances have to address complex issues, therefore countries with enormous agricultural potential need to address these issues. Due to the agricultural sector being important in reducing food uncertainty, scarcity, and famine (Appiah, 2013).
Berrang-Ford, Ford and Paterson (2011) suggested human systems needed to adapt to climate change, but understanding the adaptation challenges at a global scale was incomplete because of under-representation. Vermeulen, Zougmore, Wollenberg, Thornton, Nelson, Kristjanson and Aggarwal (2012) mentioned the achievement of food security in low and middle-income countries, which have challenges.
Dinar and Mendelsohn (2011) stated that, climate change affected livelihood to different extents within the African countries, which are already facing extreme climatic conditions. Burke, Dykema, Lobell, Miguel and Satyanath (2011) incorporated climate uncertainties in their study and estimated the climate change impacts on United States agriculture profits. These researchers’ suggested the application of these uncertainties to African agriculture would yield almost the same results. Müllera, Cramera, Harea and Lotze-Campena (2011) further commented that agriculture in Africa has risks and is negatively affected by climate change on cropping systems. The climate change and the growing population, allowed science to emulate how agricultural production can be improved (Müllera, Cramera, Harea & Lotze-Campena, 2011).
Rawlani and Sovacool (2011) explored the drivers, benefits, and challenges to climate change adaptation in Bangladesh. The climate change adaptation through coastal afforestation program with $5 million for five years duration to build various types of adaptive capacity (Rawlani & Sovacool, 2011). Turvey and Kong, (2010) explored the weather risk and the viability of weather insurance in China's Gansu, Shaanxi, and Henan provinces. The researchers’ investigated weather risks facing farmers to determined whether growers had a preference for weather indemnifications (Turvey & Kong, 2010). Turvey and Kong, (2010) results indicated that the greatest risk for farmers was drought followed by excessive rain.
Yila and Resurreccion, (2013) discovered the determinants of smallholder farmers’ edition approaches to climate change relative to viable management of agricultural production. Yila and Resurreccion, (2013) initiated that nine variables meaningfully determined the adaptation of climate transformation strategies. The variables were agricultural labor, education of the household head, land tenure arrangements, gender of the household head, extension service accessibility, number of years of farming experience, and household size (Yila & Resurreccion, 2013).
Molua, (2012) reconnoitered the gendered reaction and risk-coping capacity to climate variability for continual food security. The study was to establish the subsistence producers’ household-level food security risks associated with climate variation, and find out how households respond to these risks. Molua, (2012) suggested that short-term managing ranges included divergence of livelihood as a solution, but influenced food availability and feeding choices.
Knox, Hess, Daccache and Ortola (2011) commented that developing countries have agriculture as the cornerstone of their economic growth and source of livelihood, but the sector is most vulnerable to climate change. The researchers’ suggested that any strategy to enhance agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia needs to contain programs with natural resources being managed sustainably and to the adaptation to the climate change (Knox, Hess, Daccache, & Ortola, 2011). Buys, Miller and van Megen (2012) advocated for civic rendezvous and funding for ensuring adaptation to climate change.
Alexander, Bynum, Johnson, King, Mustonen, Neofotis and Weeks (2011) studied the indigenous knowledge on climate change adaptation on America, Europe, Asia, Oceania, Latin America, and Africa. The aim was to contribute to the thoughtful and respectful integration of indigenous knowledge with scientific data (Alexander, Bynum, Johnson, King, Mustonen, Neofotis, & Weeks, 2011).
Domeher and Abdulai, (2012) researched on the land registering, credit, and agrarian investment in Africa where these researchers’ critically explored on the linked land cataloging to agricultural investment. Ma, Heerink, Ierland, Berg and Shi, (2013) studied terrestrial tenure security and investments by probing the effect of perceived land tenure security on farmers' decisions and long-term land enhancement measures. Ma, Heerink, Ierland, Berg, and Shi, (2013) established that land tenure security was important for promoting land investments.
Odudu and Omirin, (2012) found out that land for metropolitan crop farming was readily available especially lands owned by public authorities. Bert, Podesta, Rovere, Menéndez, North, Tatara and Toranzo, (2011) commented that the Argentine Pampas have undergone major changes in land use and agricultural production capacity. This led to fewer farmers cultivating larger agricultural land areas and increase in tenants’ agricultural productions (Bert, Podesta, Rovere, Menéndez, North, Tatara, & Toranzo, 2011). Udoh, Akpan and Effiong, (2011) investigated the agricultural land allocation pattern and the land use among farmer household heads in government area of Akwa Ibom State in Nigeria. Most of the household heads were males with small farmlands (Udoh, Akpan, &, Effiong, 2011).
Kopparthi and Kagabo, (2012) remarked that access to agriculture finance is driven by high demand for rural finance with maintenance loans, procurement of inputs, and marketing of agronomic products. Middelberg, (2013) discovered the agricultural finance providers with a qualitative method and semi-structured discussions. Shahbaz, Shabbir, and Butt, (2013) investigated into the relationship between financial development and agriculture growth. These findings and results specified that financial developments have a key progressive effect on agricultural growth (Shahbaz, Shabbir, & Butt, 2013). The implication predestined that, a financial development had a significant role in boosting agricultural production and progress (Shahbaz, Shabbir, & Butt, 2013).
Alexander, C., Bynum, N., Johnson, E., King, U., Mustonen, T., Neofotis, P., & Weeks, B. (2011). Linking indigenous and scientific knowledge of climate change. Bioscience, 61 (6), 477-484. doi: 10.1525/bio.2011.61.6.10
Appiah, M. (2013). Understanding the Complexities and Resource Sustainability in Afram Plains, Ghana. Environmental Management and Sustainable Development, 2 (1), 34-50. doi:10.5296/emsd.v2i1.3040
Armah, F. A., Yawson, D. O., Yengoh, G. T., Odoi, J. O., & Afrifa, E. K. (2010). Impact of floods on livelihoods and vulnerability of natural resource dependent communities in Northern Ghana. Water, 2 (2), 120-139. doi: 10.3390/w2020120
Auken, H. V., & Zhang, J. (2009). Niche Agricultural Producers’ Acquisition of Capital. Journal of Development Entrepreneurship, 14 (1), 73-87. Retrieved from www.worldscientific.com
Berrang-Ford, L., Ford, J. D., & Paterson, J. (2011). Are we adapting to climate change? Global environmental change, 21 (1), 25-33. doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2010.09.012
Bert, F. E., Podesta, G. P., Rovere, S. L., Menéndez, Á. N., North, M., Tatara, E., ... & Toranzo, F. R. (2011). An agent based model to simulate structural and land use changes in agricultural systems of the argentine pampas. Ecological Modelling, 222 (19), 3486-3499. doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2011.08.007
Binswanger-Mkhize, H., & McCalla, A. F. (2010). The changing context and prospects for agricultural and rural development in Africa. Handbook of agricultural economics, (4), 3571-3712. doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0072 (09)04070-5
Braimoh, A. K., (2009). Agricultural land-use change during economic reforms in Ghana. Land Use Policy, 26 (3), 763–771. doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2008.10.006
Burke, M., Dykema, J., Lobell, D., Miguel, E., & Satyanath, S. (2011). Incorporating climate uncertainty into estimates of climate change impacts, with applications to US and African agriculture (No. w17092). National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w17092
Buys, L., Miller, E., & Van Megen, K. (2012). Conceptualizing climate change in rural Australia: community perceptions, attitudes and (in) actions. Regional Environmental Change, 12 (1), 237-248. doi: 10.1007/s10113-011-0253-6
Chikhuri, K., (2013). Impact of alternative agricultural trade liberalization strategies on food security in the Sub-Saharan Africa region. International Journal of Social Economics, 40 (3), 188 – 206. doi: 10.1108/03068291311291491
Dinar, A., & Mendelsohn, R. O., (2011). Handbook on climate change and agriculture (ed.). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Domeher, D., & Abdulai, R., (2012). Land registration, credit and agricultural investment in Africa. Agricultural Finance Review, 72 (1), 87 – 103. doi: 10.1108/00021461211222141
Hassan, R. M., (2010). Implications of climate change for agricultural sector performance in Africa: policy challenges and research agenda. Journal of African Economies, 19 (Suppl 2), ii77-ii105. doi: 10.1093/jae/ejp026
Headey, D., Bezemer, D., & Hazell, P. B., (2010). Agricultural Employment Trends in Asia and Africa: Too Fast or Too Slow? World Bank Res Obs, 25 (1), 57-89. doi: 10.1093/wbro/lkp028
Jones, P. G., & Thornton, P. K. (2009). Croppers to livestock keepers: livelihood transitions to 2050 in Africa due to climate change. Environmental Science & Policy, 12 (4), 427-437. doi.org/10.1016/j.envsci.2008.08.006
Kopparthi, M. S. & Kagabo, N. (2012). Is value chain financing a solution to the problems and challenges of access to finance of small-scale farmers in Rwanda? Managerial Finance, 38 (10), 993 - 1004. doi: 10.1108/03074351211255182
Knox, J. W., Hess, T. M., Daccache, A., & Ortola, M. P. (2011). What are the projected impacts of climate change on food crop productivity in Africa and South Asia. DFID Systematic Review Final Report. Cranfield University, 71. Retrieved from http://scholar.google.com/scholar?start=40&q=peer+reviewed+articles+on+climate%27s+effect+on+agriculture+production&hl=en&as_sdt=0,5&as_ylo=2010&as_yhi=2014
Magadza, C. H.D. (2003). Engaging Africa in adaptation to climate change: Climate change, adaptive capacity and development. Singapore: Imperial College Press.
Maritz, J. (2011). Many banks still see African agriculture as high risk. Retrieved from www.howwemadeitinafrica.com
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