108 Seiten, Note: Good
List of Figures
List of Tables
2 State of the County Report
2.1 General Overview of Ludwigsburg County
2.2 Analysis of Statistical Information
2.2.1 Demographic Analysis:
188.8.131.52 Population Growth
184.108.40.206 Residential Density
220.127.116.11 Net Migration
2.2.2 Economic Analysis
18.104.22.168 Temporal Transform of Workplaces
22.214.171.124 The Spatial Allocation of Financially Viable Actions
126.96.36.199 Per Capital Income and Purchasing Power
2.2.3 Commuting to Work
2.2.4 Transport and Accessibility Analysis
188.8.131.52 Public Transport Infrastructure
184.108.40.206 Accessibility to Work Places by Public and Private Transport
220.127.116.11 Walkability Distance Between Train Stations and Public Facilities
18.104.22.168 Walkability Distance Between Bus Stops And Public Facilities
2.2.5 Environmental Analysis
2.2.6 SWOT Analysis
2.4 Planning Guidelines
2.5 Spatial Concept
3 Job and Housing Allocation Scheme
3.1 Elaboration of Land Suitability Analysis
3.1.2 Definition of No-Go Zone:
3.1.3 Housing: Greenfield Development
3.1.5 Land Demand Forecast
22.214.171.124 Housing Typology
126.96.36.199 Commercial Space
188.8.131.52 Land Demand Forecast for Green Field and Brown Field Development
184.108.40.206 Land Demand Forecast for Workplaces
220.127.116.11 Land Demand Calculation
3.2 Elaboration of Jobs and Housing Allocation Scheme
3.2.1 Population Allocation
3.2.2 Site Selection for Housing Greenfield Development
18.104.22.168 Development In One Location
22.214.171.124 Selection of Bietigheim-Bissingen for New Greenfield Development
126.96.36.199 Scattered Development
3.2.3 Site Selection for Brownfield Housing Development
3.2.4 Site Selection for Working Places Allocation
3.2.5 Final Allocation Scheme
3.2.7 Transport Aspects
4 Urban Master Plan Concept for One Location
4.1 Analysis of the Allocation Site
4.1.1 Location and Existing Land Use
4.1.2 Accessibility and Transport
4.1.3 Climate and Site Orientation
4.1.4 Natural and Man-made Features
4.1.5 Visual Linkage with Surroundings
4.2 SWOT Analysis
4.3 Elaboration of Basic Concepts for the Urban MasterPlan
4.3.1 Basic Concept 1: The “Green Ribbon” Concept
4.3.2 Basic Concept 2: The “Common Yard” Concept
4.4 Selected Concept
4.4.1 Spatial Aspect
4.4.2 Green Aspect
4.4.3 Transport Aspect
5 Elaboration of Urban Master Plan
5.1 Urban Planning Aspects
5.1.1 Land Use
188.8.131.52 Single Houses
184.108.40.206 Semi-detached Houses
220.127.116.11 Terrace Housing
5.1.3 Parks, Open Spaces and Commercial Area
5.2 Transport Aspects
5.2.1 Design of Road Network
5.2.2 Selected Road Cross-sections
18.104.22.168 Main Collector
22.214.171.124 Local Collector
126.96.36.199 Access Road
188.8.131.52 Residential Road
5.2.3 Design of Turning Areas
5.2.4 Public Transport
184.108.40.206 Private Parking
220.127.116.11 Public Parking
5.2.6 Transport Model and Assessment of Allocation Site
18.104.22.168 Catchment Area:
22.214.171.124 Private Transport Isochrones
126.96.36.199 Travel Time PrT/PuT to selected zones
188.8.131.52 Average PuT Access Time
184.108.40.206 Total link length
Appendix A: Spatial Concept
Appendix B: Detail Maps
Appendix C: Cross Sections
Appendix D: Parking Facilities
Appendix E: Projected Connection with the Existing Road Network
Appendix F: Urban Master Plan
Figure 1.1 Municipalities of Ludwigsburg County
Figure 2.1 State of Baden Württemberg
Figure 2.2 Average Growth Rate at Municipality Level (2005-2009)
Figure 2.3 Old Dependency Ratio (2005-2009)
Figure 2.4 Residential Density at Municipality Level (2009)
Figure 2.5 Net migration at municipality level (2009)
Figure 2.6 Average No. of Employees (2005-2009)
Figure 2.7 Employee Share (2009)
Figure 2.8 Average per Capita Income Euro/Inhabitant (2009)
Figure 2.9 Average Purchasing Power (2009)
Figure 2.10 Ratio of In and Out Commuters(2011)
Figure 2.11 Modal Split of Transportation in Ludwigsburg County (2008)
Figure 2.12 Public Transport Infrastructure (2009)
Figure 2.13 Accessibility to Work Places by Public Transportation
Figure 2.14 Accessibility to Work Places by Private Transportation (2009)
Figure 2.15 Walkability Distance betw. Train Stations and Public Facilities
Figure 2.16 Walkability Distance Between Bus Stops and Public Facilities
Figure 2.17 Bus Stops Service Walkability Catchment to Settlement Area
Figure 2.18 Land Use Pattern of Ludwigsburg County (2009)
Figure 2.19 Conservation Concept of Natural Reserves, Habitat and Other Related Issues
Figure 2.20 Spatial Concept for Ludwigsburg County
Figure 3.1 No-Go Zones
Figure 3.2 Land Suitability Analysis for Greenfield Housing Dev.
Figure 3.3 Land Suitability Analysis for Working Places
Figure 3.4 Workflow of Land Demand Forecast
Figure 3.5 Single Family Apartments, 3 Floors
Figure 3.6 Single family house, 2 Floors
Figure 3.7 Semi-detached Houses, 1 Floor
Figure 3.8 Terrace Houses, 1.5 Floors
Figure 3.9 Land Suitability Analysis for Housing Greenfield Development, Identification of Four Possible Sites
Figure 3.10 Suitable Area South of Bissingen for Greenfield Housing Development
Figure 3.11 Suitable Area in Bietigheim-Bissingen for Greenfield Housing Development
Figure 3.12 Land Suitability Analysis for Scattered Greenfield Housing Development, Identification of Four Sites
Figure 3.13 The Selected Site for 3,000 Workplaces in Greenfield Development
Figure 3.14 Final Allocation Scheme Regarding the Type of Development
Figure 3.15 Mean Trip Time for PuT for Each Trip Purpose
Figure 3.16 Mean Trip Time for PrT for Each Trip Purpose
Figure 4.1 Selected Site, Municipality of Bietigheim-Bissingen
Figure 4.2 Sorroundings and Existing Land Use
Figure 4.3 Accessibility and Transportation of the Site
Figure 4.4 Climate and Site Orientation
Figure 4.5 Natural and Man-made Features of the Site
Figure 4.6 External Views from the Site
Figure 4.7 Visual Linkage with the Surroundings of the Site
Figure 4.8 Elements from the SWOT Analysis of the Site
Figure 4.9 Conceptual Sketch of the “Green Ribbon” Concept
Figure 4.10 Conceptual Sketch of the “Common Yard” Concept
Figure 4.11 Green Aspect Sketch of the “Common Yard” Concept
Figure 4.12 Transport Aspect Sketch of the “Common Yard” Concept
Figure 4.13 Spatial Aspect of the “Green Ribbon” Concept
Figure 4.14 Green Aspect of the “Green Ribbon” Concept
Figure 4.15 Transport Aspect of the “Green Ribbon” Concept
Figure 5.1 Urban Master Plan
Figure 5.2 Land Use Map for the Urban Master Plan
Figure 5.3 Detailed Plan and Perspective of the Single House
Figure 5.4 Detailed Plan and Perspective of the Semi–detached Houses
Figure 5.5 Detailed Plan and Perspective of the Terrace Houses
Figure 5.6 Detailed Plan and Perspective of the Apartments
Figure 5.7 Proposed Transport Network
Figure 5.8 Main Collector Plan and Cross Section
Figure 5.9 Local Collector Plan and Cross Section
Figure 5.10 Access Road Plan and Cross Section
Figure 5.11 Residential Road Plan and Cross Section
Figure 5.12 Circular Turning Areas Form
Figure 5.13 Bus Line Route and Stops for Proposed Urban Master Plan
Figure 5.14 Parallel Parking
Figure 5.15 Vertical Parking
Figure 5.16 Parking Facilities Plan
Figure 5.17 Ramp Section
Figure 5.18 On-street Parking
Figure 5.19 Catchment Area of Public Transport in Urban Master Plan
Figure 5.20 PrT Isochrones for Existing and Proposed Transport Netw.
Figure A.1 Spatial Concept for Ludwigsburg County
Figure B.1 Apartment Blocks and Local Collector Road
Figure B.2 Row Houses and Access Road
Figure B.3 Row Houses, Residential Road and Green Pedestrians’ Path
Figure B.4 Single Houses and Residential Road
Figure B.5 Semi-Detached Houses and Residential Road
Figure C.1 Main Collector Road
Figure C.2 Green Pedestrians’ Path
Figure C.3 Local Collector Road
Figure C.4 Green Pedestrians Path
Figure C.5 Access Road
Figure C.6 Residential Road
Figure D.1 On-Street Parking
Figure E.1 Projected Connections with the Existing Road Network
Figure F.1 Urban Master Plan
Table 2.1 Energy consumption and generated CO2 emissions by various types of motorized transportation
Table 2.2 Justification Criterion for Job and Housing Area
Table 3.1 Criteria for Housing: Green Field Development for 10,000Inh.
Table 3.2 Criteria for Development of 3.000 workplaces
Table 3.3 Total Land Area for Greenfield Development
Table 3.4 Total Land Area for Infill Development
Table 3.5 Parameters for new workplaces calculation in Ludwigsburg County in 2020
Table 3.6 Ranges of Average Space Requirements for Economic Activities
Table 3.7 Workplaces Land Demand for the Population of 21,400 Inhabitants
Table 3.8 Population Allocation For Scattered Greenfield Housing Development
Table 3.9 Allocation in BrownfieldCalculation
Table 3.10 Allocation of 3,000 Workplaces in Community Level
Table 4.1 SWOT Analysis
Table 5.1 Share of Land Use Type on Allocation Site
Table 5.2 Private Parking for the Housing Typologies
Table 5.3 Travel Time PrT to Selected Zones
Table 5.4 Travel Time PuT to Selected Zones
Table 5.5 Public and Private Transport Share
The County of Ludwigsburg, with the City of Ludwigsburg as its capital, is located at the core of the State of Baden-Württemberg and forms part of the Stuttgart Region. It consists of 39 administrative municipalities with a total population of 516,874 inhabitants as at 2009. The significant role of this countyin the overall development of the Stuttgart Region and the entire State of Baden-Württemberg cannot be overemphasized considering the fact that it is home to about 50 industries, 1200 craft-oriented and commercial companies and more than 2000 wholesale and retail outlets. It is anticipated that the County will experience additional population growth of approximately 21,400 in the year 2020. This has profound implications for spatial change and reorganization as more land would be required for housing and jobs allocations and other complementary functions. To this end, the development of a job and housing allocation scheme to accommodate this growth within the County of Ludwigsburg become imperative for effective regional planning and sustainable urbanism. This is the principal objective of this project and was accomplished in three main phases.
Phase one focuses on the formulation of objectives and development of planning guidelines and spatial concept based on data analysis of the existing situation considering issues such as demography, economic and environmentamong others. The analysis of the existing situation also revealed the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of the county resulting in the definition of specific objectives, namely: ensuring ecological friendly urban planning; improving non-motorized modes of transport; ensuring the effective and efficient utilization of open spaces and promoting a sense of social cohesion; and promoting compact development. The planning objectives form the basis of the planning guidelines which in turn provide the framework for the allocation of jobs and housing within the county.
In the second phase, an elaborate land demand calculation as well as land suitability analysis on the county level were undertaken using some defined benchmarks and indicators based on which the jobs and housing allocation scheme was prepared. In order to ensure spatial harmony and enhance optimal utilisation of the limited space, a spatial prioritisation of the planned interventions was carried out in line with the spatial concept and planning guidelines.
Phase three consists of a set of activities that culminated in the design of a detailed urban master plan together with implementation plan to cater for 5000 inhabitants on one location in a green field. The choice of the allocation site (Bietigheim-Bissingen) was premised on the spatial concept. In order to make informed decision about the concept that is best suited for the allocation site, two basic concepts for the urban master plan were proposed based on which the best concept was chosen. The urban master plan was prepared in an integrated manner and makes provision for adequate housing needs, transportation, environmental considerations and other socio-economic needs that are prerequisite to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants for the planned period of 2020. Cumulatively, this urban master plan will provide a comprehensive framework for pursuing the development agenda of the county.
We wish to express our profound gratitude towards our supervisors for their immense contributions, insight and guidance throughout the course of this large case study. We especially thank Dipl.-Ing. Manfred Wacker for his overall direction of the large case study and he has been a tremendous mentor for us. We would like to thank him for encouraging our Large Case Study work and for allowing us to grow as planners. His advice on both specific tasks as well as on our presentations has been priceless. We also remain grateful to Dr. Ing. Horst Reichert, Dr. Ing.AnetteGangler, Dr. Ing.RichardJunesch, Dr. Marion Aschmann, Dr. Hans-Georg Schwarz-v. Raumer, Dr. Stefan Fina, and Ms. Charlotte Ritz for their patience andguidance as well as insight and contributions that helped to refine our own ideasand work throughout the case study period.
We further express our thanks to our ever supportiveprogramme coordinator Dipl.-Ing. Ms. Elke Schneider for being there as always and ensuring that we had all thenecessary facilities required for a successful completion of this case study.
Last but not least, we express our sincere thanks to our friends and colleagues, our fellow course mates, for their technical help and assistance as well asencouragement and for always coming to our aid when we most needed them.
Ludwigsburg is the primary city of the county of Ludwigsburg, located in the state of Baden Württemberg, in the southwestern part of Germany. Because of its proximity to the city of Stuttgart, the district of Ludwigsburg is one component of the Stuttgart Region. The Neckar River crosses from north to south in the eastern part of the county while the river Enz traverse from north to east.
The district of Ludwigsburg has a population of over 500,000 people all over its area and only in the city of Ludwigsburg live around 87,000people, followed by Bietigheim-Bissingen with around 42,000 people. This district is constituted by 39 different municipalities, being Vaihingenan der Enz the largest regarding area and Freudentalthe smallest municipality.
Regarding the economic sector, Ludwigsburg has 40% of its people employed on the manufacturing sector and 15% employed in trading sector. The economy of the county is considered very strong and a very important element for the State of Baden Württemberg. Important car and metal industries have their headquarters within this county. Due to its proximity to another important economic hub (Stuttgart city) many people are commuting between these places.
The transport infrastructure of the region counts with federal, state and county roads. Also it counts with an effective railway network for S-Bahn and regional trains. The accessibility from Stuttgart and other boundaries of the county are considered in the planning process since the county is not an island and instead the neighboring counties influence it.
Given all these statistics and information, it is important for the sustainable development of the county to develop strategically housing projects for a planning horizon in 2020. It is considered that by the mentioned year there is going to be an increase in the housing demand for about 21,400 people; therefore 10,000 workplaces also have to be planned.
In this report, an urban master plan is presented for the allocation of jobs and housing. The process of its elaboration includes the following steps:
First, an analysis of data such as population, economic activities,accessibility and others. The results of this plus the field trip to the area under study gives a better understanding of the current situation of the county and facilitates the elaboration of a SWOT analysis, the objectives and planning guidelines of the case study. With this and in combination with the consulted literature, it is possible to propose a spatial concept of the area as a basis for the selection of the locations for the future development.
Second, a land suitability analysis in addition to the land demand calculation for the development. Based on the previous statement, it is possible to proceed with the elaboration of the jobs and housing allocation scheme with the proposed areas for the future developments.
For finalizing, a selected location for every type of development (greenfield, brownfield, scattered) is done with an analysis of the area in the urban context (SWOT Analysis). Based on that, two different concepts are proposed for the greenfield development. One concept is selected for the development of an urban master plan, which includes spatial, environmental and transport aspects according and following the planning guidelines.
Next is presented a deep analysis of the current situation of the county of Ludwigsburg. Relevant data is analyzed here in the fields of demographics, economy and accessibility. This facilitates the elaboration of a SWOT Analysis of the county, the objectives, and planning guidelines of the report.
All of these serve as inputs for the development of a spatial concept map, which indicates the viable areas for future developments, stating the arguments for the selection of a specific area taking into account the objectives and planning guidelines previously set as stated before.
The county of Ludwigsburg is located in the center of the State of Baden Württemberg and comes under the administrative region of Stuttgart. It borders to the north by Heilbronn, to the east by Rems-Murr, to the south by Stuttgart and Böblingen and to the west by Enz. The county covers an area of 687 km2 and has total population 516,874 inhabitants according to the last count of 2009. It consists of 39 administrative communities and has the city of Ludwigsburg as capital (figure 2.1).
The first step that should be done to carry out this study is to analyze the statistical data of the county of Ludwigsburg. This analysis concerns demographic information, economic activities, commuting, transport and accessibility, and environment.
In the county of Ludwigsburg the population was steadily increased by an average growth rate of 0.17% within the years 2005 and 2009 (figure 2.2). At municipality level, the population tends to increase mainly in the ones surrounding the city of Ludwigsburg. On the other hand, the population in this city remains almost stable. However, this population growth does not take place across the whole region, while 16 of the 39 municipalities have experienced decline of the population. A decrease in the population can result in inefficient use of the existing infrastructure, so to prevent this, measures should be taken in order to attract new population in these areas. The population growth of the county is illustrated further down in figure 2.2. At the same time, according the age-structure data, it is found that the county tends to become an ageing society, since the proportion of old people (>65 years) to the productive population (19-64 years), was increased from 28% to 31% during the study period (Figure 2.3). This increase of the older population is distributed in the same number of productive population, since the last remained stable over the last four years.
In order to determine how the population is distributed over the county, the residential density of each municipality was calculated. For this calculation was taken into account the built up area of each municipality, excluding non-urban land uses, for example agriculture area, water bodies, open spaces etc., and the population of the respective municipality for the year 2009. The residential density for each municipality within the County of Ludwigsburg is given in inhabitants per hectares (inh/ha) and it is shown in figure 2.4. The residential density ranges from 31 inh/ha to 61 inh/ha. The most sparsely populated areas are located in the northeast and in the west of the county. On the other hand, the most densely populated areas are located at the southern, these are municipalities that are closest to the city of Stuttgart, and also are areas that are at the center of the county and they are surrounding municipality of Ludwigsburg.
According to the latest data of the year of 2009, the County of Ludwigsburg presents a positive net migration. This implies that the County attracts people to live there. However, the strongest positive migration flows, with more than 200 new residents in community, is presented southeastern of the county, and specifically in the communities of Remseck am Neckar, Ludwigsburg and Möglingen (see figure 2.5).
The county of Ludwigsburg has soaring prospective for economic activity and it is signalized as a potential financially viable region. It is one of the highly industrialized districts in Baden-Württemberg, that comprise of automobile and auto parts supply and manufacturing of automotive products. Economy is always of immense significance concerning the development of a region. In this analysis, the amount of workplaces is used as a benchmark to evaluate the contemporary condition and assist to specify areas with high economic prospective. Percentage of the diverse economic sectors is also scrutinized temporally and spatially.
In 2009, there were around 165,000 Employees in Ludwigsburg County, functioning in 3 large Economical sectors specifically manufacturing; commerce, hotel and restaurant industry, transport; and other services. Compared to the Employees in 2005, there had been a slender amplify. The Percentage of the different economic sectors has been changed comparatively with a decrease in manufacturing and commerce, hotel and restaurant industry, and transport sector as shown below in the figure 2.6.
The enhancement of about 5,000 employees between2005and 2009, specify that Ludwigsburg County has a comparatively constant financially viable growth.
The spatial allocation of financially viable actions can be observed from the percentage of workplaces in every municipality and from this allotment of workplaces, Ludwigsburg County has a characteristic of nucleus. Among 39 municipalities of Ludwigsburg County, Ludwigsburg Municipality has the major share of workplaces, up to 25.6% of the whole county; followed by Bietigheim-Bissingen with a share of 12.2%, while the rest have a share of less than 8.1%. The areas with lesser distribution of workplace are to be found in the northern parts of the county, while areas with higher distribution of workplace are located in the central and southern parts of the county, as shown below in the figure 2.7.
Stuttgart area is considered as a high potential economic region due to its involvement in large scale in the sector of manufacturing and service. It participation rate is too high in manufacturing sector as compare to Hamburg, Munich and the Frankfurt Region. The monetary level of this sector is acknowledged worldwide due to the presence of Porsche, Daimler, Bosch, Schuler and other world-class companies and Ludwigsburg County has an imperative position in economy of Stuttgart Region.
The average per capital income of Ludwigsburg County (31 out of 39 municipalities) is €28,852per year with the highest rate of €42,042 recorded in GerlingenStadt(see figure 2.8) and the average purchasing power of the county is 16,242 (€/inh)with the highest rate of23,846 (€/inh)recorded inGerlingenStadt followed by Schwieberdingen with 20,305 (€/inh). The average ratio between purchasing power and average income is 56.29% (figure 2.9)
Commuting is a standard or schedule journey made from home to the workplace or to school. The means description is “regular travel”, therefore, any regular travel from home to any location can also defined as commuting though the trip purpose is not work or school-based. In this report, only commuting to work will be considered in analyzing the current state of Ludwigsburg County. Standard on presented statistical data, which served as an input for a GIS spatial analysis, the Working populations who live in the county of Ludwigsburg were categorized into two groups.
1. In-Commuters: The working population of Ludwigsburg County who work or their workplace situated within the county.
2. Out-Commuters: The working population of Ludwigsburg County who do not work or do not have their workplaces situated within the county but rather outside the county.
As we can see in figure 2.10, most of the communities except the 7 centers in the county have more out-commuters than in-commuters, which mean that people in these communities go to other places to work rather than within their own community. Among the 7 centers Municipalities which have higher in-commuter ratios are Ludwigsburg Stadt, Ditzengin, Bietigheim-Bissigen, Vahingen an derEnz and Biesigheim. Within those 5 municipalities, the accessibility of public transport (highway and rail network) gives an easier and more flexible access for commuting out to the neighboring
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Ludwigsburg is the third largest city in one of the most urbanized region in Europe, Stuttgart. In the larger regional cancellation plan of Stuttgart, the county of Ludwigsburg has being a part of development axis with an important growth role. Due to that, the county has a good service of network, such as regional road network, which is connected to national road (A81) and state motorways (B27). Besides the road network, the county has a good railway system served by S-Bahn lines S4, S5 and S6 and passed by national and international train in Vaihingenan der Enz.
The good road connection generated a dependency of private car uses because it clearly becomes an advantage for the owner. Based on statistical data of Baden-Wurrtemberg, there are around 540-560 car users for every 1000 inhabitants. Consequently it produces negative impact to environment by the increasing of energy consumption such as noise pollution, dust particles and CO2 emission. According to International Energy Report of City of Ludwigsburg, it stated that 78% transport emission of the county caused by private car traffic which shown in table 2.1, it supported by the uses of non-renewable energy for the transport whereas 92.6% users still consume petrol and diesel and the rest use bio-energy.
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Table 2.1Energy consumption and generated CO2 emissions by various types of motorized transportation
The modal split for Ludwigsburg means the separation of total person trips into the modes of travel used. The modal split analysis conducted based on trips made within the county disregarding the trips between county with its surroundings. According to data on 2008, the modal split analysis shown as follows: private transport 55%, public transport 15% and slow mode (pedestrian and cyclist) 30%. The travel time analysis generated that people have 17 minute mean travel time of private transport and 40 minute mean travel time of public transport.
As mentioned above that Ludwigsburg County served by good transportation facilities; road and trains network. The autobahn A81 located in the middle of the county and provides good connection to distant centers, such as Wurzburg, Frankfurt, Heidelberg, Mannheim, Heilbronn, Pforzheim, Karlsruhe and Munich. Besides, there are three federal highway road runs through the county which are the road B10, B27 and B295. Road B10 leads to the western part of the county such as Pforzheim and Karlsruhe, whereas road B27 connects the county to Heilbronn in the south and leads to Switzerland in northern distant. Then road B295 runs on some area within the county, which isGerlingen and Ditzingen to Sindelfingen or Boblingen. Moreover, the federal roads provide good distribution of traffic in inner the county and connects road in lower classification to national roads. The autobahn and federal roads served with and without separated carriageway. The main roads in the country are managed, operated and controlled by The Highway Authority of Ludwigsburg (Landratsamt). The main purpose of the authority is to ensure safety and efficiency of road transport facilities with providing traffic signs and traffic control.
There are rapid train connections, which served by stations in some central area or the county. The train connection integrates the county to its surrounding with different types of train or railways service such as Intercity-Express (ICE), Eurocity (EC), Regional Express (RE), Regional Bahn (RB), Suburban railways (S-Bahn) and Metro railways (U-Bahn). One ICE connection can be accessed in Vaihingenan der Enz which lead from Stuttgart to Mannheim and Karlsruhe. Networks of Stuttgart-Wurzburg, Stuttgart-Heilbronn, Stuttgart-Karlsruhe, Stuttgart-Scwabisch Hall, Stutgart-Heidelberg and Ludwigsburg-Pforzheim can be accessed in several areas within the country such as Ludwigsburg, Bietigheim, Bissingen, Besigheim, Kircheim (N), Ellental, Sachsenheim,Vaihingen an der Enz and Sarsheim operated by RE and RB.
The internal commuter trains served the VVS area which the county is belong to it by S-Bahn. It has a quite high cycle times. The entire network connects the country to inner center of the region, Stuttgart. High dependencies because of economical and other activities between two areas creates a high mobility which served by lines S4 (Marbach/Backnang), S5 (Bietigheim) and S6 (Leonberg/Weil der Stadt). In addition S60 (Böblingen) also serves as an attachment of S6 to the southern area. The last railways service is U-Bahn which connects the county to Stuttgart as a light rail public transport network. Three U-Bahn stops located in Remseckam Neckar and three others in Gerlingen. The route of Stuttgart-Remseck serves by lines U14 and Stuttgart-Gerlingen by U6.
Besides railway and bus network for passengers, there is also an existence of freight transport network which has a station located in Kornwestheim. The station itself stated as the second largest freight-station within region of Baden-Württemberg after Mannheim as an important backbone of the economy activities. Moreover, the county has the Neckar River, which provides a beautiful view and used for tourism purposes during May to October operated by passenger ship. The county does not have any commercial airport since it is located in Stuttgart within 1-hour drive or with S-Bahn.
Accessibility is one of the major spatial analytic measures and defines the degree of easiness to which an individual can reach a certain location from an origin point (Abubakar&Aina, 2006, p.2). It is related to the distance that is covered by the traveler or the amount of time or money that is spent for the specific movement. An accessibility measure can help decision makers in deciding where to allocate the various facilities, in order that these will be usable and simultaneously to reduce social exclusion.
Furthermore accessibility can be defined in regional and urban context. Regional accessibility indicates the relationship between the remote cities in a region with the central city. More precisely it expresses the degree to which the services and goods that are found in central places are obtainable to as many people in the specific region. The catchment area of each central place is defined by the hierarchical system of centrality of the region. Central places are attractors of commuters, since most economic activities occur there, so accessibility has a positive impact on economic growth. A high accessibility indicator shows the functionality and the level ofthe socio-economic activity of the respective place. Regional accessibility is connected with longer distance trips that do not covered by non-motorized vehicles. Also the attractiveness of the place is high and it provides goods and services that the transport user cannot find in the place of residence. Whereas local accessibility refers to the convenience provided to each individual, to approach places for his daily needs and activities. These locations are close to the community and are found in small centers or in neighborhood level. This type of accessibility is correlated with frequent, short-distance trips, where the choice of the destination is based on the shortest distance (Handy, 1993, p.6).Some examples of local places are supermarkets, dry cleaners, bakeries or parks. Regarding the allocation of parks, it is very important to note that all the people should have the opportunity to reach them and enjoy activities there
There are various accessibility measurement methods in order to know accessibility condition for certain area, the distance measure, the cumulative-opportunity measure, the gravity measure, the utility-based measure and the travel time measure. The travel time measure used since the travel time information is available from transportation analysis by VISUM software. The travel time variable required as impedance which disregarding through traffic, differences of vehicle and population aging. The formula of this accessibility model is shown below:
-Access.i is the accessibility of zone i
-Aj is the number of trips attracted in zone j
-Tij is the travel time required from zone i to zone j
-α is the scaling parameter which influencing the sensitivity of impedance
Work places are set the most essential area in conducting an accessibility analysis. Two different modes of transportation, public transport and private transport, are appointed in order to shown the comparison between both. The comparison between of accessibility to work places by public transport and private transport are shown in the figure 2.13 and 2.14.figure 2.13 shown that medium to very high accessibility to work places by public transportation is concentrated in the southern part of the county. Meanwhile, figure 2.14 shown that the accessibility to work places by private transportation has gradually decreasing from south to north. It is happens because the southern part has better public facilities. Moreover strong accessibility is shown in the area which passed by main road. Both figures showing that the accessibility is better in the southern part of the county where transportation infrastructure, such as rail tracks and main road are located.
Public facilities are set as potential trip attractions, which have to be served by public transport system. The facilities are cultural facility, hospital, kindergarten, retirement home, sport facilities, schools and universities. The facilities have properly located near the public transport facilities, such as bus stops and stations, in order to ease the community. Therefore the public facilities have to be located in walking distances from the public transports points.
Proper walkability distance is around 300 to 500 meters, which are concluded from several references. However, 1000 meters distance is still acceptable since it takes around 12-15 minutes for average walking speed 4-6 km/hour. Walkability distance analysis is conducted with Geographical Informatics System software. Purpose of the analysis is to show the bus stops or stations service catchment area towards public facilities.
Figure 2.15 shows the service catchment area of stations which are located in Gerlingen, Ditzingen, Marbach am Neckar, Kornwestheim, Ludwigsburg, Bietighem, Sachsenheim, Vaihingen an der Enz, Bissingen, Tamm, Asperg, Korntal-Munchingen, Schwieberdingen, Hemmingen, Freiberg am Neckar, Benningen am Neckar, Erdmanhausen, Sersheim, Besigheim, Walheim and Kircheim am Neckar in terms of walkability distance in range. There are three ranges were set; 400 meters, 600 meters and 1000 meters. From total 830 public facilities in the country, there are 33 facilities in the range of 0 - 400 meters, 84 facilities in the range of 400 – 600 meters and 218 facilities within 600 – 1000 meters. It can be seen that the area with certain centrality and category of middle and lower centrality, have a high density of public facilities. Since some of those are served by stations, the facilities within the areas have a better walkability service of stations.
Bus services networks connect all of municipalities within the county with decent coverage. There are approximately 780 bus stops, which are well distributed in order to increase the comfort of community. In terms of walkability distance to public facilities, the existences of bus stops are mostly covered the public facilities within established waking distance range of 400 to 1000 meters as can be seen in the figure 2.16.
Bus networks have to connect living areas with their place of attractions. In this case living areas are settlements or built up areas. As mentioned above that the private transport is very popular in the county, which generated negative impact to the environment, therefore services of public transport have to be improved in order to change people behavior. Bus stops established as backbone of inner public transport system since it has a good distribution within the county. One of the main variable to improvement of bus service is the stops has to be easily reach within walking distance. The figure 2.17 shows that there are some settlements areas are not covered by bus service in the range of 400 meters to 1000 meters.
Environmental factors are crucial in development. They exert significant influence on the location of facilities such as houses, roads, sewer and water infrastructure among others. It is therefore necessary to make provision for these environmental features in the plan design process. Analysis of the environmental situation in the County of Ludwigsburg indicates that the existing environmental conditions are closely related to land use and its intensity. This linkage is depicted in figure 2.18
It could be observed fromfigure2.18 that the major land use of the County of Ludwigsburg is agriculture. Out of its total land area of 687km2 about 55.6% is used for agriculture purpose. This is followed by settlement and transport, which constitute 23.9% with forest representing the lowest share of 18.2%.
Generally, the county is characterized by steep slopes with high quality of fertile soil. This is evident along the Neckar River where the existing limestone provides adequate support for vineyards activities, which are typical features on the cultural landscape within the County. The northeastern part of the County is basically covered by protected landscapes including natural parks and forests. This provides enormous potential for recreation activities for the inhabitants and also serves as nature preservation.
Another important landscape worth mentioning is the flora and fauna protection areas predominantly found at the northwestern part of the County. These flora and fauna can also be found along the rivers. It is therefore necessary to make deliberate effort in the planning process to protect these natural species to ensure environmental sustainability.
- Southeast part of Ludwigsburg County has a positive net migration.
- 21% share of economic development in this county coming from manufacturing.
- The high in-commuters ratio shows the ability to provide jobs for inhabitants.
- Southeast part of the count indicates the higher share of workplaces.
- Southeast part of Ludwigsburg County has a good accessibility.
- 55.51% of total land use in 2009 is allocated for agriculture.
- River Neckar gives scenic beauty and landscape.
- Population decrease in some municipalities.
- High dependency ratio due to high share of old people (old-dependency ratio increases every year)
- Income disparity between municipalities is quite high; the highest income is 61% higher than the lowest income. It indicates there is an imbalance development in economic terms.
- Northern areas have less access to PrT and PuT.
- Lack of bus stops in some areas.
- Manufacturing industries contribute to noise and air pollution though most are located quite far from residential areas.
- Overlapping of green areas with the settlements.
- An expected increase of the population of the county due to migration. The provided data shows an ascending number of immigrants from 2006 to 2009.
- Optimal utilization of social services due to increased population.
- The possibility of an accelerated development of the southern part of the county due to its proximity to Stuttgart.
- The existing more developed areas of the county attract the majority of the new comers. This could lead to possible overcrowding of the existing infrastructure and social amenities.
- Competition in terms of job opportunities between the locals and the outsiders.
- Higher percentage of the immigration occurs in areas where accessibility to public transportation is good. The capacity of the transportation and other facilities could be overstretched the future.
- Potential shift of the land use due to the increased population and future development. Example: conversion of agriculture land into residential land.
a. To ensure ecological friendly urban planning
The development of areas should happen in harmony with the ecology. This involves the exploration of local conditions and definition of suitable forms of development for each area.
b. To ensure sustainable residential and commercial area
New housing and industrial facilities shall be planned and built in Sustainable way, regarding land use and design. This may include e.g. Green-roof houses, Green Facade, rain water harvesting etc.
c. To preserve and enhance natural open space
The main objective isto preserve and enhance natural open spaces by protection policies and by providing different type of green spaces in new development.
d. To promote efficient utilization of energy
It is aimed to store and conserve natural resources by optimizing the utilization of energy and materials
e. To ensure impartial development among job and housing
The development in diverse areas has co-relation with the number of job places and the number of available houses. The main aim is to decrease the required time to reach the workplaces which will in turn result in the reduction of travel cost.
f. To optimize the usage of existing infrastructure
New development of infrastructure projects is expensive in both cases (money and time). The optimal utilization of existing infrastructure should be done.
g. To increase the percentage of public transportation
New settlements with high need of transport services will be provided with public transport facilities. This would be integrated in the jobs and housing allocation design.
h. To improve non-motorized modes of transport and promote a sense of social cohesion
There will be conscious effort in the planning process to provide adequate space for non-motorized modes of transport like pedestrian walkways, bicycle lanes and green areas to facilitate easy accessibility to abbey facilities.
i. To consider cultural factors in urban planning and design
Cultural perspective plays an important role in urban planning. Hence local historical, cultural circumstances and heritage of the planning area should be considered.
j. To Promote the Social sustainability
The social living condition and social cohesion should improve.
k. To ensure the effective and efficient utilization of open spaces
In order to promote social cohesion and community, open spaces like playgrounds for children, squares or plazas, etc. would be developed, furnished and put into efficient use.
a. Limitation of ecological footprint through Compact development Strategy
Ecological footprint can be limited through compact development planning that ensures the minimization of environmental pollution and the cost-effective use of existing infrastructure.
b. Protection of habitat of endangered biotopes species
Protection of habitat of endangered biotopes species should be obligatory by putting restriction on development in those areas. No future development should take place in these specific areas.
c. Restrict development along natural resources and close to agriculture land
New development along rivers, lakes agriculture land and green area should be prevented to avoid pollution and depletion of existing natural resources
d. Location of new workplaces close to existing companies
Achievement of this guideline will result in the agglomeration of economies or compact development regarding the financially viable activities.
e. Location of new development close to existing infrastructure
New development should be located close to existing infrastructure such as road, railways, power, water, etc.
f. Promote the utilization of public and non-motorized mode of transport
Locate new settlement along existing transport infrastructure.
Create new lanes and improve existing ones.
g. Stipulation of assorted typology of housing based on affordability
Different kind of houses, i.e. semi-detached, detached, row, apartment, etc., would accommodate a diversity of people belonging to various economic and social classes.
h. Provision of open spaces like playgrounds for children, squares or plazas, etc.
Open spaces provide opportunities for social interaction and thereby reinforcing social cohesion
i. Orientation of residential area adjacent to natural elements
By this principle an energetic living condition could be achieved
j. Improving the quality of housing and access to social services
A maximum distance should be defined between housing areas and social services.
Future development of Ludwigsburg County is based on concept and strategies, which are an elaboration, result from discussed analysis of comprehensive fields, objectives, and planning guidelines. In addition, county role and location on view of Stuttgart regional constellation is also take into consideration. Stuttgart region current strategies and objectives are being guidelines for the county development in order to achieve regional planning goals. As a fourth strongest county in Germany which integrated in one of strongest economical region in Europe (Landkreis Ludwigsburg), the county has a role in supporting economical activities as well as providing land for housing. Moreover, sustainability issue is also become an important factor to balance the development not only resilient in economy but also friendly on environmental, social and cultural aspects.
The spatial concept of Ludwigsburg County proposed three keys interrelation approaches of improving social mobility by public transport facilities as well as non-motorized transport, ensuring environment condition to reach sustainability in ecological values, balancing development with polycentric method with focused on proximity to existing infrastructure and land uses allocation.
Firstly, one of the spatial approaches is to utilize existing infrastructure facilities and enhancing people to use public transport system as well as walking or cycling. Therefore existing transportation stops are used as an anchor of future land expansion. The available expanded land is areas which are inside of transport facilities service coverage in walkability and cyclist friendly. Bus service becomes essential while it cover the whole county, though number of service in certain lane need to be increased. Adding new bus stops are tolerates to do for future land development in order to have higher share of public transport (PuT) in the modal split. Furthermore, provision of decent walking and cycling facilities are being focus on the implementation plan within the county.
Secondly, figure 2.19 illustrates the concept of environmental sustainability approach. Following the approach, the concept prevent existing environmental condition especially with high level of protection from development, i.e. water protection area certain class (I & II), forest with landscape protection and natural reserve conservation area. Further, additional preservation areas are emphasized within the concept, such as surface and ground water protection, flood plain prevention area alongside river Neckar, Enz and its tributaries, also introduces habitat pathway either inner or cross border of the county. Surface and ground water protection area are highly correlated to preventive flood plain area; river should be protected from pollution due to the direct and indirect benefit for other aspects. Therefore activities along the river should be assessed in certain way to reach standard quality of surface water. Indirectly surface water quality can affect to ground water condition when the water infiltrate through the soil. Moreover, preventive flood plain areas are presented in order as a mitigation plan for probability of flood event. Afterwards, habitat pathway provided to connect areas with proven flora or fauna activities therefore it hopefully ensure them to live in synergy with other development. Figure 2.19 shown an example of green pathway, which connects habitat niches. The environmental concept is a major part of the whole concept because future development of housing and job are restricted in these areas. The aim of this concept is to harmonizing the county development hand in hand between economic, social and environmental aspects.
Finally, the last proposed spatial concept is balancing development growth by allocating jobs and housing area based on development axes which area highway, federal roads and railways that transverse the county and centrality approach. In addition, allocation of jobs and housing influenced by assessment of existing criterions that shown in table 2.2 and explained as follows:
a. Net commuter ratio, values shows number of people mobility in purpose of working. Positive value mean that the area supply more working spaces then attracts more working people, therefore allocation of housing is needed.
b. Growth rate, value shows demographic condition within mentioned areas. Jobs allocation is highly correlated into the growth rate and become one of planning strategy. Since negative growth rate means shrinkage of people therefore allocation of jobs is necessary in these areas, thus expected that the areas will attract more people to come and live.
c. Residential density, concept of compact development and utilize existing infrastructure would be found through this criteria. Low residential density leads to allow the concept in allocate more housing area and not in contrary.
d. Proximity to development axes, the essential criteria since further development expected to have minimum travel distance and time to existing infrastructure. Proximity to highway and federal road for instance are important factor for allocating industrial area while the activities need to have decent transportation network.
Table 2.2Justification Criterion for Job and Housing Area
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Figure 2.20 shows the proposed spatial development concept including projected housing and industrial area, growth along proximity to development axes and centrality. The concept is encouraging and spreading development growth by shifting economical activities towards north and west part of Ludwigsburg County. It also illustrates that 4 out of 5 Mittelzentrums; Kornwestheim, Besigheim, Bietigheim-Bissingen and Vaihingenan der Enz are become focus of industrial and housing development. Although Ludwigsburg is the core municipality, the city is not become the focus because it already developed with economical activities (services, commercial, industrial, offices, etc). Ludwigsburg also has important preserved cultural and heritage values that should to be utilized as tourism attraction and service-based economical generator.
Elaboration of centrality and development axes approaches in future housing and industrial location will be adopted. It aim that the concept will maximizing the utilization of existing infrastructure facilities such as highway, federal roads, public facilities and transportation system as basic of future land extension. Central points on the map, which represent by Mittelzentrum and Unterzentrum will be core of development and support the surrounding areas to develop. The centers provide higher level of services to its peripheries and vice versa the peripheries support the core by other aspect, i.e. housing area.
The future development of the county of Ludwigsburg requires the realization of an urban master plan for the allocation of 21,400 additional inhabitants for the planning horizon 2020. In addition, 3,000 new workplaces have to be allocated as well. In this chapter the “jobs and housing allocation scheme” of the respective demand is examined. Specifically, it refers to the calculation of the required land for the accommodation of both residential areas and workplaces, to the implemented analysis for the identification of the possible development area, and finally to the dispersion of the population and workplaces to the county of Ludwigsburg.
For the allocation of job and housing areas in the county, a land suitability analysis took place. This kind of analysis was performed in GIS software and it is an overlay mapping procedure. Specifically, this method analysed different individual suitability maps, which in a next step were associated in an overall suitability map. The individual suitability maps, were concerning characteristics and criteria that are reflecting the objectives and the planning guidelines set in the previous chapter.
In a first step, there was a determination of the ‘No-Go-Zone’ areas. These areas are not suitable for both job and housing development and they were excluded from site search analysis. In the next step positive and negative criteria were examined and considered in order to identify the most suitable area for the housing green field development and workplaces.
Before carrying out the analysis, it was necessary to prepare the needed data. The reason is that there are both quantitative and qualitative values, or the values of the raw data were in a different range. This state does not allow the comparison and the sum up of the different criteria, while the overlay procedures overlay data, which belong in the same dimension scale. Due to this, a reclassification of the values took place in order to transform them into one-dimensional values. The range of the values of the criteria was set from 1 to 9, where the lowest value designates the lower suitability level and the higher designates the higher suitability level. This range of values was selected because it was preferred to have a notable difference between the values. Due to fact that land suitability analysis is a procedure that involves several criteria of difference importance (Multi Criteria Decision Analysis), it is required to apply a weight of importance in each criterion (Malczewski, 1999, p.177). Theassignment of the weights was based on the judgment of the members of the group.
The analysis was held separately for the two types of development (housing and workplaces) considering every time the relevant criteria for the suitability analysis, and at the end there were two different suitability maps exported, one for each case of development.
The first step for the investigation of the most appropriate area for development is to exclude the areas that are unsuitable. Such areas are the already developed areas, as the built up areas and the land that is used for the transportation network. Also there is exclusion of zones, such as areas belong in water protection classes I & II, where the development there is not permitted. Besides these areas, there was provision to exclude and protect sensitive and valuable areas of the natural environment. In this manner, the analysis considers the preservation of biotopes and ecosystems, productive farmland and scenic landscapes. All the criteria that constitute the No-Go Zone, figure 3.1, are listed in detail below:
Environment / Land Protection
- Natural reserve: existing and planned
- Protected biotopes
- Natural monuments
- Flora fauna habitats
- Landscape protection: existing and planned
- River, streams, springs
- Flood areas: existing and planned
- Water protection: existing and planned (classes I & II) (development is not permitted in these areas which belong on the respective classes).
- Existing Settlements and Existing Industrial and Commercial Areas
- Highway and federal roads
- Major roads
According to the requested tasks of the project, 21,400 inhabitants should be accommodated in housing areas in the County of Ludwigsburg. 11,400 inhabitants are allocated in already developed areas (brownfield development) and the rest 10,000 inhabitants are allocated in new built settlements (greenfield development).
The identification of the most suitable area for Greenfield development was based on the spatial concept and the planning guidelines set in chapter 2. The analysis criteria reflect five main objectives.
Firstly, to obtain efficient use of land, some criteria were selected that secure the valuable land and in that way to discourage the development there. Specifically the criteria are:
- Greenbelts, which prevent the expansion of the developed area to the valuable natural environment and, at the same time, connect the green and conservation areas.
- Fertile soils, which must be used in a rational way and be preserved for future generations. In general, the county Ludwigsburg consists of fertile soils, and the exclusion of them would result to have no available sites for consideration. For that reason, soil was evaluated according to the fertility degree. Very high fertile soils (sehrhoch&Sehrhochnat veg) assigned as restricted area, and are out of consideration in the analysis. One level further down, but still important zone, is the high to very high fertile soils (Hoch bissehrhoch). Soils in this class were assigned with a value of 3. To the high fertile soils (Hoch) it was given the value of 5. The rest area, with no reference to fertility, is the most suitable for development and for that reason is evaluated with 9.
- Open spaces, recreational and green areas, which form a place for citizens’ activities and improve the microclimate of the urban landscape.
- Water protection areas that belong in zone III (zones I & II were assigned as no-go zones). Water ﷽﷽﷽﷽s the l way andn yet to come accidents- alignement - pavement In these areas the access and the performance of activities by the public is allowed, with the precondition that there is no deposition of waste materials and hazardous substances to the water.
The second objective is to ensure low construction cost for both infrastructure and housings. Thus, at the LSA the topography of the area was taken into account. The criterion that represents this field is the slope of the area. The lowest values were given to the least suitable areas with slope higher than 15%. A middle value represents the areas with slope that ranges from 10 to 15%. The flatter areas, with slope lower than 5%, are the most suitable and were given a value of 9.
The provision of a quiet and healthy environment of residence is the third objective of the study. This objective will be achieved by avoiding the air and noise pollution. Thus, a buffer distance from high-speed vehicular traffic roads (highways and federal roads), railway lines and industries was kept.
The fourth objective is to achieve utilization of the existing transportation system and at the same time to provide citizens accessibility to the network. By this measure there will be not further cost for new infrastructure, such as roads and extension of the public transport network. Particular emphasis was given to the accessibility to public transport, since this study promotes its use and aims to reduce social exclusion. In order to attain this goal, the considered criteria for the LSA were: Proximity to major roads, distance to public transport stops and accessibility to workplaces by both private and public transport.
The last objective is to accommodate the residents close to the existing urban services, because it is necessary to provide them access to urban facilities. In that way the new residents will not be excluded and they will have the opportunity to participate to social events and approach places for their daily needs and activities. Some examples of local places are supermarkets, dry cleaners, bakeries or parks. The criterion that reflects this goal is the ‘Distance to the existing settlements’.
The utilization of the existing transportation system and accessibility is the goal considered as most important of all and for that reason it was given the higher weight of 28%. The objective for efficient use of land is the second important with a weight of 23% and then comes the third objective, the proximity to urban services, with a weight of 21%. The fields of ‘avoidance of air and noise pollution’ and ‘topography’ are the least important and assigned with a weight of 16% and 12% respectively.
Table 3.1 Criteria for Housing: Green Field Development for 10,000 inhabitants
illustration not visible in this excerpt
The result of the LSA is shown in an overall suitability map. The initial values of the suitability map range from 0 to 9 and in order to have a more distinct result, these values were reclassified in 4 classes: Not suitable (0-2), Least suitable (3-4), Suitable (5-7) and Most suitable (8-9).
The study also provides development of 3,000 jobs for the additional population, at several locations in the county of Ludwigsburg. The most suitable area was identified in the same way as this for the area for Greenfield development and based on the planning guidelines.
The first objective is again to accomplish efficient use of land, as it is in the LSA for the Greenfield development, and for that reason the same criteria were used. The second objective is related to the cost and the feasibility of the structure and it represented with the topography and specifically the slope of the area. The argument is that it is not possible to build big buildings, which will operate as factories and industries, in very steep areas. Thus, the areas that have slope higher than 10% were assigned with a value of 1, areas with slope between 5% and 10% with a value of 3 and the most suitable areas with slope lower than 5% with a value of 9. The utilization of the existing transportation system and the provision of accessibility to the network by the employees, are very important goals and will considered in the LSA. The future developed workplaces should be well connected with the existing roads and the public transport services and allow the employees to reach them easily. The next goal concerns again the proximity to transportation network, but in this case it is regarding the easiness to transport goods to and from the manufacturing units. The criteria that reflect this goal are the ‘Distance to highways exits’ and the ‘Distance to federal roads’. The last objective is related to the land use of the area. It is considered to be preferable, future working places to be placed in areas where there are already some industries, while the existing activity will act as attractor for new business.
The ‘Utilization of the existing transportation system and accessibility’ is again the most important goal and it was given the higher weight of 27%. The objective for ‘Proximity to transportation network’ is the second important with a weight of 23% and then comes the third objective, the ‘Efficient use of land’, with a weight of 22%. The fields of ‘Topography’ and ‘Proximity to existing workplaces’ are the least important and both of them assigned with a weight of 14%.
Table 3.2Criteria for Development of 3.000 workplaces
illustration not visible in this excerpt
The result of the LSA for the working places is shown in the overall suitability map (figure 3.3).
The analysis of the statistical data generally indicates that the County of Ludwigsburg is experiencing population growth mainly due to high net migration. This has implication for current and future land consumption for housing and accompanying infrastructure. This section therefore seeks to ascertain the total land required for housing and infrastructure to accommodate 21,400 new inhabitants. The workflow of the land demand forecast is depicted in figure 3.4
Seminararbeit, 10 Seiten
Facharbeit (Schule), 35 Seiten
Hausarbeit (Hauptseminar), 22 Seiten
Diplomarbeit, 74 Seiten
Seminararbeit, 14 Seiten
Bachelorarbeit, 158 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 17 Seiten
Diplomarbeit, 69 Seiten
Studienarbeit, 57 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 17 Seiten
Seminararbeit, 10 Seiten
Facharbeit (Schule), 35 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 17 Seiten
Hausarbeit, 17 Seiten
Der GRIN Verlag hat sich seit 1998 auf die Veröffentlichung akademischer eBooks und Bücher spezialisiert. Der GRIN Verlag steht damit als erstes Unternehmen für User Generated Quality Content. Die Verlagsseiten GRIN.com, Hausarbeiten.de und Diplomarbeiten24 bieten für Hochschullehrer, Absolventen und Studenten die ideale Plattform, wissenschaftliche Texte wie Hausarbeiten, Referate, Bachelorarbeiten, Masterarbeiten, Diplomarbeiten, Dissertationen und wissenschaftliche Aufsätze einem breiten Publikum zu präsentieren.
Kostenfreie Veröffentlichung: Hausarbeit, Bachelorarbeit, Diplomarbeit, Dissertation, Masterarbeit, Interpretation oder Referat jetzt veröffentlichen!