Research paper, 2013, 54 Pages
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
LIST OF FIGURE
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background Information
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objective of the Study
1.4 Specific Study Objectives
1.5 Research Question
1.6 Specific Research Questions
1.7 Scope and Limitations
1.8 Significance of the study
1.9 Conceptual Framework
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Theoretical Review
2.1.1 The Theory of the Entrepreneurial Event
2.1.2 The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)
2.1.3 Entrepreneurship theories
2.2 Empirical Review
2.2.1 Research on intentions
2.2.2 The role of education in entrepreneurial intentions
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design
3.2 Study Area and Units
3.3 Survey Population
3.4 Sampling Design and Procedure
3.5 Variables and Measurement procedure
3.5.1 Institutional settings
3.5.2 Curricula Contents
3.5.3 Objectives of EEP
3.5.4 Teaching Methods
3.5.5 Characteristics of Audiences
3.5.6 Personal Attitude
3.5.7 Subjective norms
3.5.8 Perceived behavioral Control
3.5.9 Entrepreneurial Intentions
3.6 Data collection Methods
3.7 Data Analyses and tools for measurement
3.9 Ethical Consideration
CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS
4.0 Descriptive Statistics of Demographic
Objective two & six
Objective five & seven
Objective three & four
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Table 4.1: Age
Table 4.2: Marital Status
Table 4.3: Pearson Correlation
Table 4.4: Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
Table 4.5: Paired Sample Statistics & Test
Table 4.6a : Teaching Method * Institutional Affiliation
Table 4.6b: Chi-Square Tests
Table 4.6c: Course Contents * Institutional Affiliation
Table 4.6d: Chi-Square Tests
Figure 1: Variables relationship
Within the field of entrepreneurship education research the dominant focus has been on its role (Learning Entrepreneurial and Enterprising Readiness (LENTRE), 2009); Curricula and teaching methods, entrepreneurship learning, entrepreneurship behaviour and methodological issues (Jayasinghe, 2003). Less dominant has been a focus on critical entrepreneurship education factors which trigger change in Entrepreneurial behavior.
This study seeks to examine whether entrepreneurship education programmes offered in higher learning institutions in Tanzania trigger the adoption of an entrepreneurial behaviour. It is both a comparative and longitudinal study which takes female undergraduate students in two higher learning institutions, namely, Institute of Accountancy Arusha and Kampala International University as case studies. The study adopts a comparative analysis in order to examine how specific characteristics of Entrepreneurship Education Programmes (EEPs) influence its impact and how the impact differs across similar cohorts of students in different situations.
Entrepreneurship education programme as used in this study refers to any pedagogical training programme or process of education for entrepreneurial attitudes and skills, which involves developing certain personal qualities (Fayolle, et. al, 2006). It covers a wide variety of situations, aims, methods and teaching approaches. However, it is important to note here that EEP does not exclusively focus on the immediate creation of new businesses but, as Hagan (2004) contends, is the provision of fundamental knowledge of concepts and the tools that aspiring and practicing entrepreneurs can use to act entrepreneurially and /or to manage a small business. On the other hand, our use of the concept entrepreneurial behaviour is closely related to Fayolle, et al. (ibid) use which means “intentional behaviour”. According to Brannback, et al, (2007), intention is considered to be a better direct predictor of behaviour than attitudes, beliefs or other psychological or sociological variables. Attitudes and beliefs predict intentions, which in turn predict behaviour (Kurland, 2003) and so intentions serve as a mediator or catalyst for action.
This study takes as its point of departure in studies by Mufa (2005) and Massawe (2006) which found that final year college students taking entrepreneurship courses in Tanzania were likely to express strong interest in entrepreneurial career compared to those not taking entrepreneurship courses. Elsewhere studies have confirmed that entrepreneurship education and training influence both the current behaviour and future intentions of students (Fayolle, et. Al 2006).
Other research works which studied the relationship between EEP and variables such as the need for achievement and the locus of control (Hansemark, 2003) or “self-efficacy” (Ehrlich et al., 2000) found that entrepreneurship education had a positive impact on enhancing these characteristics and the likelihood of action at some point in the future. The assumption is that this entrepreneurial education will influence students’ career choices towards entrepreneurship by positively swaying their intention to perform.
In recognition of the importance of entrepreneurship as an economic growth and national prosperity driver, universities and colleges now offer entrepreneurial education as part of their curricula. The assumption is that this entrepreneurial education will influence students’ career choices towards entrepreneurship by positively swaying their intention to perform entrepreneurial activities.
However, in Tanzania according to ILO, (2003) entrepreneurial education influences very few (0.8%) female students’ career choices towards entrepreneurship and considering themselves personally able to carry out entrepreneurial activities. It is within this context that this study seeks to examine why entrepreneurship education programmes offered in higher learning institutions in Tanzania does not fully trigger the adoption of an entrepreneurial behaviour among female students.
The broad objective of the study is to investigate the reasons for low participation of female students with undergraduate degrees in Entrepreneurial activities in Tanzania.
1) To determine the impact of institutional settings on starting a firm
2) To explore the effect of family background on entrepreneurial intention
3) To investigate the relationship between curricula contents and entrepreneurial intention
4) To investigate the relationship between teaching methods and the intention to start a firm
5) To establish the relationship between personal attitudes and becoming an entrepreneur
6) To analyze the effect of subjective norms to starting a firm
7) To examine the effect of perceived behavioral control and the goal to become an entrepreneur
The broad question which this study seeks to answer is: What are the reasons for low participation of female graduates with undergraduate degrees in Entrepreneurial activities in Tanzania?
1) Do institutional settings have an impact on starting a firm?
2) What effect do family backgrounds have on entrepreneurial intention?
3) Is there any relationship between curricula contents and entrepreneurial intention?
4) What is the relationship between teaching methods and the intention to start a firm?
5) Is there a relationship between personal attitudes and becoming an entrepreneur?
6) What effect do subjective norms have on starting a firm?
7) Is there any relationship between perceived behavioral control and the goal to become an entrepreneur?
The author acknowledges that several factors can provoke change in entrepreneurial behavior. However, this study limits itself to seven factors, namely: (1) Institution Settings (2) Family Background (3) Curricula contents (4) Teaching Methods (5) Personal Attitudes, (6) Subjective Norms and (7) Perceived Behavioral Control.
The study focuses on intentionality; however intentions may not turn into actual behaviors in the future. Therefore, even if a respondent stated a high entrepreneurial intention in the study, she might choose a completely different career path in the future.
Since data collected was based on the perception of students, there might be a difference between perceptions and reality. The perceptions of students after their graduation might be different than the reality
The contribution of this study is anticipated to be fourfold:
First, for the academia it offers results from rather a distinctive setting covering Entrepreneurship Education. Certainly the results derived from the study can be useful in furthering our understanding on entrepreneurship.
Second, for female entrepreneurs it provides valuable insights on the determinants of starting and barriers to doing business. Individuals considering starting up a business might become interested to evaluate their ambitions according to model developed and to foresee the obstacles which they might face if they decide to start the business.
Third, for the policy makers it provides sophisticated data processed by scientifically proven techniques and with an accurate results and appropriate policy recommendation.
Fourthly, to contribute to the understanding of entrepreneurship education and training, specifically relevant in the area of course design.
The conceptual framework for this study is based on independent and dependent variables. The framework examined factors which possibly influence entrepreneurial intention. Since Moustaghfir and Širca, (2010) argued that through entrepreneurial learning one develops an intention which in turn influences entrepreneurial behaviour.
These variables are mapped as follows in figure 1.
Figure 1: Variables relationship
Independent Variables Dependent Variable Outcome
illustration not visible in this excerpt
Source: Field study, 2012
The conceptual framework above is used to show the relationship between independent and dependent variables. Essentially, the framework is the foundation on which the entire study was based upon.
The Independent variable is the antecedent, whereas the Dependent variable is the consequent. In experiments, the Independent variable is the variable that is controlled and manipulated by the experimenter; whereas the Dependent variable is not manipulated, instead the Dependent variable is observed or measured for variation as a presumed result of the variation in the Independent variable. In non experimental research, where there is no experimental manipulation, like this study, the Independent variable is the variable that 'logically' has some effect on a Dependent variable. For example, in the research on cigarette-smoking and lung cancer, cigarette-smoking, which has already been done by many subjects, is the independent variable (LaFountain and Bartos, 2002).
The independent and dependent variables in this study are:
- Institutional Settings
- Curricula Contents
- Objectives of EEP
- Teaching Methods
- Characteristics of Audiences
- Personal Attitude
- Subjective Norms
- Perceived Behavioral Control
- Entrepreneurial Intentions
Whereas the Independent Variables are:
(1) Institution settings (2) Curricula Contents (3) Objectives of EEP (4)Teaching Methods (5) Characteristics of Audiences (6) Personal Attitude (7) subjective norms and (8) Perceived behavioral Control
The Dependent Variable in study is the Entrepreneurial Intention.
Schenkel, et al (2007) noted that an individual’s immediate environment can also be a source of tacit knowledge, or “know how,” which can also serve as an important catalyst to entrepreneurial intentions. Tacit knowledge tends to be acquired through experience over time, as opposed to formal training. Tacit knowledge yields a qualitatively different sense of absorptive capacity by providing individuals with a greater depth of understanding and range of conceptualizing entrepreneurial possibilities.
Wang and Wong (2004) pointed out that entrepreneurial intention of many students is hindered by inadequate preparation- (their business knowledge is insufficient. They are not prepared to take risk to realize their dreams). Academic institutions have critical role in encouraging young people to choose an entrepreneurial career. The universities and colleges are too academic and encouraging entrepreneurship insufficiently.
Contextual elements are the environmental factors that might have an impact on entrepreneurial intention. Economic, political and cultural climate, administrative complexities, having access to resources, and physical and institutional infrastructure can be regarded as environmental factors (Ayobami and Ofoegbu, 2011). Administrative complexities refer to the degree of administrative complication in establishing a business. These activities can be very time consuming and expensive which eventually discourage acts of entrepreneurship. Access to information is an important element for the intention to establish a new business (Ayobami and Ofoegbu, 2011). Having access to business information is the availability of information in the environment about establishing a new venture and how to run a business.
Access to finance is the ability of the individual to find financial support to establish a business since most of the investors and banks are not willing to make investments in new ventures. Availability of capital is regarded as one of the common obstacles to establish a new business by potential entrepreneurs (Ayobami and Ofoegbu, 2011). General economic climate is the availability of entrepreneurial opportunities and risks associated with them. In studies of entrepreneurial intention, it is recommended to study environment at the perceptional level because rather than the actual environment, the perceptions about the environment, one can determine whether to undertake entrepreneurial activities or not.
Curriculum Contents of entrepreneurship courses
According to Albert, et al (2004) there are four kind of knowledge useful to entrepreneurs: (1) Business general knowledge: it applies to business in general, both new and established firms; (2) venture general knowledge: it is distinct from business general knowledge but fairly general to ventures; (3) Opportunity specific knowledge: it is the knowledge about the existence of an un-served market and/or about the resources needed for venturing in it; (4) venture-specific knowledge: it is the knowledge on how to produce a particular product or service.
The last two are generally the most important ones for entrepreneurial success, but business schools normally offer courses that foster the first two categories of knowledge. Hundreds of programs in entrepreneurship have been introduced around the world.
However, it is widely recognized that most of them educate ‘about’ entrepreneurship and enterprise rather than educating ‘for’ entrepreneurship (Turker and Selcuk, 2009). Only rarely do they focus on developing in their students the skills, attributes and behavior of the successful entrepreneur. Changes in the contents of courses have been suggested by Kurland (2003): more attention needs to be paid to the development of entrepreneurial skills, attributes and behaviors. According to Turker and Selcuk, (2009) the skills traditionally taught in business schools are essential but not sufficient to make a successful entrepreneur: he therefore suggested the adoption of modules specifically designed to develop skills related to communication, creativity, critical thinking, leadership, negotiation, problem-solving, social networking and time management.
Objectives of Entrepreneurship Education Programs
Most entrepreneurship education programs present different objectives. These may be specific and immediately measurable objectives (such as student knowledge) as well as more general and complex ones (such as entrepreneurial success or career satisfaction).
Through the identification of various objectives of entrepreneurship education, we might have a deeper understanding of educational needs as well as a more weighted choice of evaluative criteria and pedagogical techniques (Albert, et al (2004). The most commonly cited objectives of entrepreneurship education according to Albert, et al (2004) are:-
To acquire knowledge relevant to entrepreneurship, this objective refers to the learning of knowledge, concepts and techniques about some specific area or discipline, related to the field of entrepreneurship. We refer, for instance, to contents such as ‘alternative ways of identifying business opportunities’; ‘frameworks for identifying resources and constraints’; ‘the nature of start-up ventures’, etc.
To acquire skills in the use of techniques, in the analysis of business situations and in the synthesis of action plans. This objective aims at promoting skills of analysis and synthesis in the use of knowledge about accounting, finance, marketing and general management in a holistic way. For instance, the development of a business plan for a new venture requires the integration of functional skills and competencies into a single framework.
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